An diofar eadar na mùthaidhean a rinneadh air "Medellín"

Chaidh 4,056 baidht a chur ris ,  10 bhliadhnaichean air ais
b
20 revisions: Gemäß Antrag: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=63621886
b (litreachadh)
b (20 revisions: Gemäß Antrag: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=63621886)
{{Dablink|For other uses, see [[Medellín (disambiguation)]]}}
{{Template:Baile
{{Infobox settlement
| AINM = Medellín<br />Municipio de Medellín<br /> Baile Medellín
|name=Medellín
| BRATACH = Bandera de Medellin-Colombia.PNG
|settlement_type = City
| LÙIREACH = Escudo de Medellin.png
|official_name = Municipio de Medellín
| LÙIREACH_LEUD = 60
|motto =
| MAPA = MunsAntioquia Medellin.png
|image_skyline = Centro de Medellin- Colombia.JPG
| DÙTHAICH =[[Coloimbia]]
|imagesize = 300px
| CEÀRN = [[Antioquia Department|Antioquia]]
|image_caption = Downtown Medellín
| SGÌRE =
|image_flag = Bandera de Medellin-Colombia.PNG
| LEUD = 6° 14′ 9.33″ Tuath
|image_seal = Escudo de Medellin.png
| ASTAIR = 75° 34′ 30.49″ Iar
|image_map = MunsAntioquia Medellin.png
| FARSAINGEACHD = 382
|mapsize = 250px
| ÀIREAMH_SHLUAIGH = 2223078
|map_caption = Location of the city (urban in red) and municipality (dark gray) of Medellín in Antioquia Department.
| BLIADHNA = 2005
|pushpin_map=Colombia
| FÒN =
|pushpin_map_caption=Location in Colombia
| DUILLEAG = [http://www.medellin.gov.co/alcaldia/index.jsp Riaghaltas Mhedellín]
|pushpin_mapsize=300
}}
|subdivision_type = Country
'''Medellín''' ([[Spàinntis]]: [[IPA]]:[með̞eˈʝin] neo [með̞eˈʎin]), gu h-oifigeil ''Municipio de Medellín'' (Spàinntis) neo ''Baile Medellín''. 'S e an dàrna baile as motha ann an [[Coloimbia]] a th' ann. Tha e anns [[A' Ghleann Aburrá]], fear dhe na gleanntan as mu thuath [[Beanntan Andes|na h-Andes]] ann an [[Aimearaga a Deas]]. Tha sluagh dhe 2.4 muillean aige.<ref>{{cite web|last=Helders|first=Stefan|url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-55&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan|title=World Gazetteer: Colombia: largest cities: calc 2006|accessdate=2006-06-15}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Butler|first=Rhett|year=2003|url=http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Colombia.htm|title=Largest cities in Colombia (2002)|accessdate=2006-06-15}}</ref> 'S e an dàrna tuineachadh as motha ann an Coloimbia a rèir an t-sluaigh a th' ann, le a barrachd air 3.2 millean duine, san àite 95 eadar na bailtean as motha na cruinne, ma thoirear a-staigh an sgìre mu a thimcheall, [[Ceàrn Cathaireil a' Mhedellín]] (''Area Metropolitana de Medellín'').
|subdivision_name = [[Colombia]]
|subdivision_type1 = [[Departments of Colombia|Department]]
|subdivision_name1 = [[Antioquia Department|Antioquia]]
|leader_title = Mayor
|leader_name = [[Alonso Salazar Jaramillo]]
|established_title = Founded
|established_date = [[November 2]], [[1675]]
|area_magnitude =
|area_total_km2 = 382
|area_total_sq_mi =
|area_land_km2 =
|area_land_sq_mi =
|area_water_km2 =
|area_water_sq_mi =
|area_water_percent =
|area_urban_km2 =
|area_urban_sq_mi =
|area_metro_km2 = 1152
|area_metro_sq_mi =
|population_as_of = 2005
|population_note =
|population_total = 2223078 ([[List of colombian municipalities by population|ranked 2nd]])
|population_density_km2 = 5320.75
|population_density_sq_mi =
|population_metro =3312165
|population_density_metro_km2 =
|population_density_metro_sq_mi =
|population_urban =
|timezone =
|utc_offset = -5
|timezone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST =
|latd=6|latm=14|lats=9.33|latNS=N
|longd=75|longm=34|longs=30.49|longEW=W
|elevation_m = 1495
|elevation_ft =
|postal_code_type = <!-- enter ZIP code, Postcode, Post code, Postal code... -->
|postal_code =
|area_code =
|blank_name = '''[[Human Development Index|HDI]]''' (2006)
|blank_info = 0.808 – <span style="color:#090">high</span><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.veeduriamedellin.org.co/img_upload/9eab3531de2c5b3c94fe5391c9495b98/IDH_InversionPerCapitaMedellin2001_2004.xls|format=xls|accessdate=2009-01-26|language=Spanish|title=Veeduría Ciudadana al Plan de Desarrollo de Medellín IDH 2004-2007|author=Veeduría de Medellín}}</ref>
|website = [http://www.medellin.gov.co/ Government of Medellín official website]
|footnotes =
}}
 
'''Medellín''' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]]: {{IPA|[með̞eˈʝin]}} or {{IPA|[með̞eˈʎin]}}), officially the ''Municipio de Medellín'' (Spanish) or ''Municipality of Medellín'', is the [[List of capitals and largest cities by country|second largest city]] in [[Colombia]]. It is in the [[Aburrá Valley]], one of the more northerly of the [[Andes]] in [[South America]]. It has a population of 2.4 million.<ref>{{cite web|last=Helders|first=Stefan|url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-55&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan|title=World Gazetteer: Colombia: largest cities: calc 2006|accessdate=2006-06-15}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Butler|first=Rhett|year=2003|url=http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Colombia.htm|title=Largest cities in Colombia (2002)|accessdate=2006-06-15}}</ref> With its surrounding area, the [[Metropolitan Area of Medellín|metropolitan area of Medellín]] (''Area Metropolitana de Medellín'') it is the second largest settlement in Colombia in terms of population, with more than 3.2 million people, and ranks in population as the 95th of the [[world's largest urban agglomerations]].
Chaidh Medellín a stèidheachadh ann an 1616 leis an [[An Spàinn|Spàinnteach]] [[Francisco Herrera Y Campuzano]] mar ''El Poblado de San Lorenzo'' (Tuinneachadh Naoimh Lawrence) anns an sgìre ris an canar ''El Poblado'' gus an-diugh. Ann an 1675 stèidhich A' Bhanrìgh Companach [[Mariana na h-Ostaire]] am ''Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria'' ("Baile Naoimh Mhàiri à Chandelaria").
 
Medellín was founded in 1616 by the [[Spain|Spaniard]] [[Francisco Herrera Y Campuzano]] as ''Poblado de San Lorenzo'' ([[Lawrence of Rome|Saint Lawrence]] Town) in what is known currently as [[El Poblado (Medellín)|''El Poblado'']]. In 1675 the [[queen consort]] [[Mariana of Austria]] created the ''Villa de Nuestra Señora de la [[Candelaria]]'' ("Town of [[Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic)|Our Lady]] at Candelaria").
Ann an 1826 chaidh am baile ainmeachadh prìomh-bhaile na [[Roinn Antioquia |Roinne Antioquia]] le ùghdarrasan co-àiteachail na Spàinne. Ann an 1803 chaidh an [[Oilthigh Antioquia]] a stèidheachdh agus 's e aon de na h-oilthighean as buaidheach ann an Coloimbia a th' ann. An dèidh do Choloimbia an neo-eisimeileachd bhon [[An Spàinn|Spàinnt]] a bhuanachadh, bha Medellín na phrìomh-bhaile na Stàit Feadaral Antioquia gus 1888, le èigheachd [[Bun-Reachd]] na Coloimbia ann an 1886. 'S e làrach malairteach fiùghantach bh' ann am Medellìn rè na 19mh linn, tro as-mhalairt an [[òr |òir]] aig an toiseach, agus an uair sin tro chinneasachadh agus as-mhalairt a' [[cofaidh|chofaidh]]. An dèidh [[Cogadh na Mìle Làithean]] (1899 — 1902), 's e Medellín a' chiad bhaile ann an Coloimbia a ghabh pàirt anns an [[Tionndadh Gnìomhachais]] le stèidheachadh companaidhean a' chlòtha, agus pròiseactan còmhdhail mar an trèana a mhisnich as-mhalairt, agus stèidheachadh iomadh oithighean agus sgoiltean dreuchdail, is iad a chruthaich [[Clas Buirdeasach Beag]].
 
In 1826 the city was named the capital of the [[Department of Antioquia]] by the Spanish colonial administration. In 1803 the [[University of Antioquia]], one of the most prestigious in Colombia, was founded. After Colombia won its independence from [[Spain]], Medellín became the capital of the Federal State of Antioquia until 1888, with the proclamation of the [[Colombian Constitution of 1886]]. During the 19th century Medellín was a dynamic commercial center, first exporting [[gold]], then producing and exporting [[coffee]]. After the [[Thousand Days War]] (1899 &mdash; 1902), Medellín was the first Colombian city to take part in the [[Industrial Revolution]] with the opening of textile companies, and transport projects like railways that allowed its export business to develop, and the founding of several universities and vocational training institutions, which created a [[petite bourgeoisie]].
Anns a' ceathreamh mu dheireadh na 20mh linn, bha prìomh àros [[Pablo Escobar]] maslach ann am Medellín, ceannard buidheann mhòr eucoirich, a bha an seachdamh duine a bu bheairte san t-saoghal tro mhalairt dhrogaichean, a-rèir aithisg bho [[Forbes|Iris Forbes]] ann an 1989.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cocaine.org/colombia/pablo-escobar.html|title = P. Escobar}}</ref> 'S e an "[[Cairteil a' Mhedellín]]" an t-ainm a chuir na meadhannan anns na Stàitean Aonaichte oirre, a chionn 's gun do stèidhich esan agus a chuid chompanaich an gnothach ann am Medellín.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rakontur.com/2006/10/27/cocaine-cowboys/|title=Cocaine Cowboys|accessdate=2008-05-04|dae=27 October 2006}}</ref> Stiùireadh Escobar cogadh ceannaircich an aghaidh Riaghaltais Coloimbia rè na 80an agus na 90an, ann an cuid gus nach fheuch na h-ùgharrasan ri a thoirt air falbh gu na Stàitean Aonaichte. Chaidh a mharbhadh le feachdan Poilis Coloimbia 2 An Dùbhlachd, 1993.
 
In the last quarter of the 20th century, Medellín became the headquarters of the infamous [[Pablo Escobar]], the leader of a vast criminal organization, who became the seventh richest man in the world of the drugs trade, according to a 1989 [[Forbes|Forbes Magazine's]] report.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cocaine.org/colombia/pablo-escobar.html|title = P. Escobar}}</ref> Because he and his associates based their business in Medellín, his organization was named the "[[Medellín Cartel]]" by the American media.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rakontur.com/2006/10/27/cocaine-cowboys/|title=Cocaine Cowboys|accessdate=2008-05-04|dae=27 October 2006}}</ref> During the 1980s and 1990s, Escobar led a terrorist war against the Colombian government, partly to dissuade the authorities not to trying to extradite him to the United States. He was killed by police forces on December 2, 1993.
Fhuair am baile a chuid fhiùghantais gnìomhachasail air ais aig toiseach na 21mh linn, le togail siostaim treànaichean ris an canar [[Metro de Medellín]], agus le polasaidhean leasachaidh na bu shaoire, adhartasan anns an tèarainnteachd agus anns an fhoghlam, agus tro bhrosnachadh a' bhaile aig ìre eadar-nàiseanta mar cheann-uidhe [[turasachd]].
 
At the beginning of the 21st century the city regained its former industrial dynamism, with the construction of the [[Metro de Medellín]] [[Commuter rail|railway]], and liberalised development policies, improved security, improved education, and promoted the city internationally as a [[tourist destination]].
Bheir Ceàrn Cathaireil a' Mhedellín gu buil 67% an [[Làn Thoradh Dùthchail]] aig [[Ceàrn na h-Antioquia]] agus 11% [[eaconomaidh]] na Coloimbia.<ref name="ProExport16">{{cite web|publisher = Proexport Colombia|url = http://www.proexport.com.co/VBeContent/NewsDetail.asp?ID=7658&IDCompany=16|title = Report on Medellín's Economy by 2005|quote = participation of the cities GDP by countries provided by the International Cooperation Agency of Medellín|accessdate = May 8, 2008}}</ref> 'S e roinn chudromach a th' ann am Medellín a thaobh oilthighean, sgoiltean treànaidh, malairte, gnìomhachais, saidheans, seirbheisean na slàinte, tuathanas flùraichean, fèisean, taighean-seinne agus clubaichean.
 
The Medellín Metropolitan Area is responsible for 67% of the [[Department of Antioquia]]'s [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] and for 11% of the [[economy of Colombia]].<ref name="ProExport16">{{cite web|publisher = Proexport Colombia|url = http://www.proexport.com.co/VBeContent/NewsDetail.asp?ID=7658&IDCompany=16|title = Report on Medellín's Economy by 2005|quote = participation of the cities GDP by countries provided by the International Cooperation Agency of Medellín|accessdate = May 8, 2008}}</ref> Medellín is important to the region for its universities, academies, commerce, industry, science, health services, flower-growing, festivals and nightlife.
== Facal-Fhreumhachd an ainm Medellín ==
 
==Etymology of the name Medellín==
[[File:Diego Velázquez 032.jpg|right|thumb|100px|[[Mariana na h-Ostaire]].]]
 
[[File:Diego Velázquez 032.jpg|right|thumb|100px|[[Mariana of Austria]].]]
Bha còig ainm air a' bhaile Spàinnteach tùsail ron fhear air a bheil e an-diugh: Aburrá de los Yamesíes, San Lorenzo de Aburrá, San Lorenzo de Aná, Valle de San Bartolomé, agus Villa de la Candelaria de Medellín.
 
The original Spanish settlement had five names before its current one: Aburrá de los Yamesíes, San Lorenzo de Aburrá, San Lorenzo de Aná, Valle de San Bartolomé, and Villa de la Candelaria de Medellín.
Fhuair am baile an t-ainm aige bhon a' bhaile [[Medellín (Spàinn)|Medellín]], faisg air [[Badajoz]] ann an [[Extremadura]] anns An Spàinnt. Chaidh am Medellín Spàinnteach a stèidheachadh ann an 75 RO le [[Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius]].<ref name="origin">{{cite web
 
The city is named after [[Medellín (Spain)|Medellín]], which is near [[Badajoz]] in [[Extremadura|Extremadura, Spain]]. The Spanish Medellín was founded in 75 BC by [[Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius]].<ref name="origin">{{cite web
|url = http://www.medellin.es/psituacion.htm
|title = Ayuntamiento de Medellín (España). Toponímicos de Medellín
|language = Spanish}}</ref>. 'SSome annof anthe [[Roinn Badajoz]] a bha cuid dhe na [[CeannsaicheanConquistadors]], neosuch Conquistadores ann an Spàinntis,as [[Gaspar de Rodas]], prìomhthe Riaghladairfirst nagovernor of h-Antioquia, namcame measgfrom the region of [[Badajoz (province)|Badajoz]].
 
Dh'iarr An t-Iarla [[Count Pedro Portocarrero y Luna]], CathraichePresident Comhairleof Innseachanthe anCouncil Iarfor the West Indies (''Consejo de Indias''), doasked the Crùn[[Monarchy|ChrùnSpanish namonarchy]] Spàinneto give gunthe cuireadh ainm a'name bhaileof aigehis fhèintown, Medellín ann anin Extremadura, airto a'the bhailenew ùrsettlement annin an AimearagaAmerica. ChaidhHis an t-iarrtas aige arequest ghabhailwas risaccepted 22mhon AnNovember t-Samhain22, 1674, nuairwhen a ghlaodhthe [[An TàinistearRegent]] Mariana naof h-OstaireAustria gurproclaimed ethe city's [[name to be ''Villa de Nuestra Señora de Medellín]]''. The anofficial t-ainmproclamation awas bhagiven air a' bhaile. Rinn An Riaghladair,by Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, anGovernor, èigheachdon oifigeilNovember 2 An t-Samhainn, 1675. Bhuilich Mariana gearradha-arm airgranted a' bhailecoat of arms to the city 24mhon An24 t-IùcharJune 1676.<ref name="origin"/>
 
== Eachdraidh History==
===Amerindians===
=== Tùsanaich Aimearaganach ===
There is archaeological evidence of human settlement in the Aburrá Valley from 10,500 years ago, found by [[hunter]]s and [[collecting|collectors]]. The Spaniard conquerors of the valley found groups like the Aburrá, Yamesí, Pequé, Ebejico, Norisco, and Maní tribes who lived in the valley since about the fifth century. The Aburrá people gave their name to the valley. They were farmers who raised [[maize]], [[beans]] and [[cotton]], wove and decorated [[textile]]s, sold [[salt]], and were [[goldsmith]]s. Under Spanish rule, they lost their land and were subject to a feudal system of government. Many were sent to the mines. Sickness brought by the Europeans, as well as the hard work and mistreatment, caused their extinction, at least from the valley. People related to the Aburrá Valley tribes can still be found in other regions of Antioquia State, like [[Urabá Antioquia|Urabá]] and the western and southern regions.
Seallaidh an fhianais-àrsaidheachd, a fhuaireadh le [[sealgair| sealgairean]] agus [[collecting|luchd-cruinneachaidh]], gun robh daoine a' fuireach anns [[A'Ghleann Aburrá]] o chionn 10,500 bliadhna. Lorg Ceannsaichean Spàinnteach a' ghlinne iomadh bhuidhne, mar na tuatha Aburrá, Yamesí, Pequé, Ebejico, Norisco, agus Maní is iad air a bhith nan tàmh anns a' ghlinne bho mu dheidhinn a' chòigeamh linne. Thug na h-Aburrá an t-ainm orra air a' ghleann. 'S e tuathanaich a bh' annta is chinneadh iad [[cruithneachd Innseanach]], [[pònair]] agus [[cotan]], dh'fhigheadh agus mhaiseachadh iad [[clò]], reiceadh iad [[salann]], agus b' e [[òr-cheàrdaichean]] a bh' annta. Chaill iad an cuid fearrainn fo Riaghailt nan Spànnteach, agus bha iad fo smachd siostam riaghaltais fhiùdalaich. Chaidh iomadh dhuibh a thoirt dha na mèinnean. Chaidh iad uile a mhilleadh anns a' ghleann sin co-dhiù, le tinneasan às an Roinn Eòrpa, a bharrachd air an obair chruaidh agus an droch làimhseachaidh a fhuair iad. Tha daoine le buntaineas do thuatha [[A'Ghleann Aburrá |a' Ghlinne Aburrá]] ann fhathast is iad a' fuireach ann an sgìrean eile ann an Stàit na h-Antioquia, mar eisimpleir ann an [[Urabá Antioquia|Urabá]] agus anns an sgìre ann an àirde a deas agus iar.
 
===Spanish discovery of the valley===
=== Taisgealadh Spàinntich a' ghlinne ===
 
[[File:Jorge Robledo-Busto-Medellin.JPG|thumb|left|110px|MarasgalMarshal Jorge Robledo.]]
 
AnnsIn an LùnasdalAugust 1541, bha [[Jorge Robledo (ceannsaicheconquistador)|MarsgallMarshal Jorge Robledo]] annswas anin the àiteplace risknown antoday canaras [[Heliconia, Antioquia|Heliconia]] anwhen lathahe an-diughsaw agusin chunnaicthe edistance rudwhat fadhe àsthought is esanwas a' creidsinnvalley. eHe gursent eJerónimo gleannLuis aTejelo bh'to ann.explore Chuirthe eterritory, Jerónimoand Luisduring Tejelothe amnight fearrannof aAugust rannsachadh,23 agusTejelo ràinigreached Tejelothe anplain fhaicheof farwhat ais bheilnow Medellín. anThe lathaSpaniards an-diughgave tronit oidhchethe 23name Anof Lùnasadal.Valley Thug na Spàinntich Gleannof [[Bartholomew the Apostle|NaoimhSaint BartholomeBartholomew]] air, achbut chaidhthis sinwas atharrachadhsoon annchanged anfor ùinethe ghearrnative guname Aburrá, anwhich t-ainmmeans tùsail aige, a tha a' ciallachadhthe "''DealbhadaireanPainters''," airdue sgàthto 'sthe guntextile dodecorations rinnof nathe Tùsanaich dealbhan air a' chlònatives.<ref name="restrepo">Restrepo Uribe, Jorge (1981), Medellín, su Origen, Progreso y Desarrollo, Servigráficas, Medellín. ISBN 84-300-3286-X.</ref> ChaHowever, robhthe anconquerors gleannwere chonot tarraingeachattracted dhamuch naby ceannsaicheanthe aigvalley anat àmthe sintime, leisbecause choof gannthe 'slack aof bhawealth eand athe thaobhhostile beairteisattitude agusof leis cho nàimhdeil a bha daoinethe anlocal àiteinhabitants.
 
Ann anIn 1574 dh'iarr [[Gaspar de Rodas]] bhoasked the [[CabildoDepartment deof Antioquia|Antioquia's]], neo[[Cabildo Comhairle(council)|Cabildo]] nafor h-Antioquia,four ceithearsquare mìlemiles ceàrnagachof deland fhearrannto fhaighinnestablish airsonherds treudan agus tuathanasand a stèidheachadhranch annsin a'the ghleannvalley. ThugThe a' ChomhairleCabildo trìgranted mìlehim ceàrnagachthree dhemiles fhearrannof dhasanland.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
ThàinigIn An1616 Reachdadairthe Co-Àiteachailcolonial visitor Francisco de Herrera y Campuzano lefounded 80a Tùsanaichsettlement Aimearaganachwith ann80 an 1616Amerindians, ganaming ainmeachadhit "''Poblado de San Lorenzo''," far a bheiltoday "[[CèarnagEl Poblado, Medellín|Ceàrnag El Poblado Square]]" an latha an-diugh. Ann anIn 1646 dh'òrdaicha laghacolonial co-àiteachaillaw gunordered sgarradhthe naseparation Tùsanaichof AimearaganachAmerindians bho nafrom [[mestizo]]s agus naand [[mulatto]]s, is le sinso thòisichthe colonial administration airbegan bailethe ùrconstruction of a thogailnew anntown anin Aná, fartoday a[[La bheilCandelaria, A'Medellín|Berrio Cheàrnag Bherrio an latha an-diughSquare]], aguswhere farthe anchurch deach eaglaisof ''Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Aná'' ("NaomhOur MàiriLady àof Candelaria ann anof Aná") awas thogailbuilt. TrìThree bliadhnayears anlater, dèidhthe sin,Spaniards started thòisichthe naconstruction Spàinntichof the [[Iglesia La Candelaria de Medellín|EaglaisChurch Chandelariaof annOur amLady Medellìnof Candelaria]] a thogail, awhich chaidhwas arebuilt thogailat a-rithistthe aigend deireadhof nathe 18mh18th linncentury.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
===Growth Amof baile a' fàsthe town===
 
[[File:Iglesia de Nuestra Iglesia de la Candelaria-Mede.JPG|160px|thumb|right|EaglaisChurch Màiriof a'Our ChandelariaLady annsof a'Candelaria Chèarnaigin Berrio Square.]]
 
ThòisichAfter an1574, sluaghwith airGaspar fàsde lìonmhorRodas ansettled dèidhin 1574the valley, aguspopulation bhastarted Gasparto degrow. RodasAccording nato thàmh anns a' ghleann.the A-rèirchurch cunntasanrecords naof h-Eaglaisethe San Lorenzo, bhaChurch, siasix pòsaidheancouples annmarried eadarbetween 1646 agusand 1650, agusand 41 eadarbetween 1671 agusand 1675.<ref name="restrepo" /> BhaGold mèinneanmines òirwere airdeveloped annortheast leasachadhof annAntioquia, anand iar-thuaththey Antioquia,needed agusan bhaa feumfood orrasuppply airfrom biadhnearby fhaighinnargriculture. bhonThe dùthaichAburrá riValley awas thaobh.in 'Sa estrategic àiteposition gubetween maththe roi-innleachdailgold eadarmines mèinneanand òirthe agusfirst a'provincial chiadcapital phrìomh-bhaileof roinneilAntioquia, [[Santa Fe de Antioquia]] a bh'ann an [[a'Ghleann Aburrá |Gleann Aburrá]].<ref name="restrepo" />
 
ThòisichThe a' phrìomh-bhaileprovincial roinneilcapital, Santa Fe, astarted chuidto shuimealachdlose aimportance challand agusgradually dh'fhàsbecame epoor, bochdas meantrade airand mhean,prominent leispersonalities gunof tigeadhthe daoineregion cudromachcame a'to mhalairtethe chunAburrá a' ghlinne AburráValley, farwhere anrich dofamilies thòisichstarted teaghlaicheanto beairtbuy fearainn a cheannachdland. AnnSoon, anthe ùinefirst ghoirid,settlers dh'iarrasked a'for chiadthe chuidcreation dheof tìrichean gun cruthachadha [[Cabildo (comhairlecouncil)]] annsin a'the ghleannvalley, agusthus legetting sina fhuairseparate iadgovernment riaghaltasfrom fa-leth bho ShantaSanta Fe.<ref name="restrepo" /> Rinn an riaghaltas ann anThe Santa Fe sabaidgovernment anfought aghaidh sinthis, achbut 22Mariana Anof t-SamhainnAustria 1674signed chuirthe edict Marianacreating nathe h-OstaireCabildo aon h-ainm22 dhanNovember reachd1674. aThe chruthaichgovernor a'Miguel Chomhairle.de ChaidhAguinaga anproclaimed reachdthe rìoghailroyal aedict ghairmon 2 AnNovember1675. t-SamhainThe 1675new leiscity anwas Riaghladairgiven Miguelthe detitle Aguinaga. Fhuair am baile ùr an t-ainmof ''Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria''.<ref name="restrepo" /> {<!-- haven't we already said this? -->
 
===During the Spanish colonial period===
=== Rè linntean fo bhuaidh nan Spàinnteach ===
 
[[File:Plano de Medellin 1791.jpg|thumb|left|100px|MapaMap of Medellín mar a bhaas eit annwas anin 1791.]]
 
BhaBefore nathe daoinecreation airof anthe sgapadhtown, airthe feadhinhabitants a'were ghlinnescattered rothroughout stèidheachadh a'the bhailevalley, aguswith chaonly robha achfew corrafamilies theaghlaichconcentrated ganat cruinneachadhthe aigconfluence beulof na h-Aibhnethe Aná (Antoday Abhainnthe [[Santa Elena]]) an-diughand agus na h-Aibhnethe [[Medellín River]]; bhaothers feadhainnwere eileliving a' fuireach ann anin El Poblado San Lorenzo. AnAfter dèidhthe naroyal reachd rìoghailedict, thaghthe nasettlers luchd-inmrichchose làrachthe airAná ansite Abhainnas Anáthe marheart chridheof a'the bhailefuture ri teachdailcity, lewith eaglaisthe Candelaria annChurch at amits meadhancentre.
 
'SThe efirst gnothaicheanbuildings tiughadhwere gu math sìmplidh a bh' annssimple, nawith prìomhthatched thoglaicheanroofs. ChaThe robhhouses achof the ùrlairmost fiu'simportant aigpeople taigheanwere natwo daoinestoreys as cudromaichetall, agusand chathe robhchurch anand eaglais agus Talla a'the BhaileCabildo chowere drùidhteachunimpressive. ChaIt robhwas anonly eaglaisduring airthe a18th leasachadhcentury achthat annsthe anchurch 18mhwas linnimproved. ChaThe robhCabildo achwas ùrlaronly airone storey, Tallaand a'was Bhaile,located aat bhathe stèidhichtewestern ripart taobhof anthe iar na ceàrnaigplaza. BhaIt mullachhad tiughadha airthatched guroof ruigeuntil 1742, nuairwhen atiles chuireadhwere sglèiteanput airon. Ann anIn 1682, thòisichtraders luchd-malairteand agusforeigners còigrichstarted the construction of the [[Iglesia de la Veracruz (Medellín)|EaglaisVeracruz na Croise FìorHermitage]], (Iglesiawhich dewas laconsecrated Veracruz)as a thogail,church coisrigteby marthe eaglaisBishop le Easbaig naof [[Popayán]] ann anin 1712.<ref name="restrepo" />
{{clear}}
[[File:Iglesia La Veracruz-Fachada 2-Medellin.JPG|160px|thumb|right|[[Iglesia de la Veracruz (Medellín)|EaglaisThe naVeracruz Croise FìorChurch]]]]
ThugIn prìomh1675 chùnntas-sluaighthe nafirst linnteancensus co-àiteachailduring àitecolonial anntimes anwas 1675taken: bhathere were 3,000 duinepeople agusand 280 teaghlach annfamilies. ChaAnother docensus rinnwas iadnot cùnntas-sluaightaken eileuntil gusthe an do dh'òrdaich "Elcolonial Visitador Colonial" (Anroyal Reachdadair Co-Àiteachailinspector) [[Juan Antonio Mon y Velarde]] eordered uaireiginone eadarsome time between 1786 agusand 1787: bhathere were then 14,507 duinepeople agusand 241 teaghlach annfamilies. Ann anIn 1808, two bhliadhnayears musbefore doColombia bhuannaichwon Coloimbiaindependence, athere cuid neo-eisimeileachd, bhawere 15,347 duinepeople agusand 360 teaghlach annfamilies.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
In 1803 the Royal College of the Franciscans was founded in the Central Plaza (today Berrío Square) with Departments of Grammar, Philosophy]] and Theology.<ref>''Suramericana de Seguros'', History of Antioquia, Ed. Presencia Ltda, Medellín, 1988, without ISBN, in Spanish.</ref> Soon after, the College moved to a new building in the small San Ignacio square. In 1821 it was renamed Colegio de Antioquia, and it became the [[University of Antioquia]] in 1901. The University was also the home of the first vocational training school, the first cultural radio station in [[Latin America]], and the first regional [[botanical garden]]. Today it is known for developments in medicine, including [[organ transplant]]s.
 
<!-- OK lunch break done up to here so far need to do link check too but will do that as second pass, just trying to fix English and do underlink/overlink User:SimonTrew 2009-05-11 -->
Chaidh Colaiste Rìoghail nan Franciscanach a stèidheachadh 180 ann am Plaza Central (Cèarnag Bherrío an latha an-diugh) agus bha roinnean [[Gràmair]], [[Feallsanachd]] agus [[Diadhachd]] aige.<ref>''Suramericana de Seguros'', History of Antioquia, Ed. Presencia Ltda, Medellín, 1988, without ISBN, in Spanish.</ref> Ann an ùine ghearr, chaidh an Colaiste a ghluasad gu togalach ùr anns a' Cheàrnag Bheag San Ignacio. Ann an 1821 fhuair e an t-ainm ùr [[Colaiste na h-Antioquia]], agus mu dheireadh thall Oilthigh Antioquia ann an 1901. Bha a' chiad sgoil trèanaidh dreuchdail, a' chiad stèisean radio cultarail ann an [[Latin America|Aimearaga-Laideannach]], agus a' chiad [[gharradh luibheach]]aig an oilthigh. Tha e clùiteach an-diugh airson leasachaidhean anns an leigheasachd, [[ath-chur buill-bodhaig]] nam measg.
 
===Industrial revolution===
=== Tionndadh Gnìomhachais ===
 
[[File:Estacion del Ferrocarril -Medellin.JPG|200 px|thumb|left|ToglachRestored Stèiseanbuilding Mheadhanachof anthe TrèanaCentral airRail a dh'ath-leasachadhStation.]]
 
Dh'fhàsDuring amthe bailenineteenth uabhasachcentury, cudromachthe aigcity ìregrew nàiseantato national naimportance 19mhbecause linnof aits chionnproduction 'sof gungold dèanadhand òrcoffee agusand coifidh,the aconstruction bharrachdof airthe gunregional do thogadh an rathad iarainn roinneilrailway (''Ferrocarril de Antioquia''), air a rachadh à cleachdadhnow a-nisdisused.
 
Dh'àrdaichIn sluaghthe a'first Mhedellínhalf siaof turasthe annstwentieth a'century chiadthe lethpopulation naof 20mhMedellín linnincreased sixfold, bho sluagh defrom 59,815 anninhabitants anin 1905 guto 358,189 ann anin 1951. ChuirThe [[CogadhThousand naDays Mìle LàitheanWar]] (1899-1902) stadstopped airthe leasachadhindustrial gnìomhachasaildevelopment a'of bhailethe city, ged nach tugalthough anthe [[cogadhcivil sìobhaltawar]] buaidhdid gunot dìreachaffect airthe anregion roinndirectly. RinnReforms Ceann-suidheby President [[Rafael Reyes]] ath-chruthachaidheanafter an dèidh a'the chogaidhconflict, agusthe leancity leasachadhcontinued gnìomhachasailits a' bhaileindustrial development<ref name="restrepo" /> lewith stèidheachadhthe foundation of a [[ComannChamber Luchd-Malairteof commerce]] ann amat Medellín. ChruthaichThe a'Chamber bhuidheannwas sinresponsible pròiseactfor còmhdhailthe roinneildevelopment of a cheangailregional Medellíntransport doproject that connected Medellín roinneanto eileother annColombian anregions Coloimbiaand agusthe thalloutside thairisworld.
 
Despite the importance of gold production in the early development of Medellín, it was [[coffee]] that made the city grow in the 20th century. Trade grew to international dimensions as the main export of Colombia became [[Coffee Production in Colombia|coffee]]. The industrial and commercial dynamism of Medellín also created also a caste of traders and entrepreneurs who founded the first nationwide industries in Colombia.<ref name="restrepo" /> During the 1930s, the textile industry was developed by families whose fortunes came from colonial-era gold mines. Glass, beverage, and food industries also were founded during the 1930s, and contributed to making Medellín the top industrial region of Colombia. Many of these businesses are still in existence, either with their original names or new names.
A dh'aindeoin gu robh gnìomhachas an òir uabhasach cudromach aig toiseach toiseachaidh leasachaidh Medellín, 's e [[cofaidh]]a thug fàs air a' bhaile anns an 20mh linn. Dh'fhàs am malairt gu ìre eadar-nàiseanta leis gum fàsadh [[cofaidh]] a' phrìomh stuth as-mhalairt na dùthcha. A bharrachd air sin, chruthaich fiùghantas gnìomhachasail malairteach a' Mhedellín clas dhe luchd-malairte agus luchd-dèanadaise is stèidhich iad prìomh ghnìomhachasan aig ìre nàiseanta ann an Coloimbia.<ref name="restrepo" /> Rè na 1930an, leasachadh gnìomhachas a' chlòtha le teaghlaichean a rinn am fortain ann am mèinnean an òir aig àm a' cho-àiteachais. Chaidh gnothaichean na Glainne, na Dighe, agus a' Bhìdhe a stèidheachadh rè nan 1930an, agus chuidich sin Medellín an roinn gnìomhachasail a dhèanamh an tè a bu chudromaiche ann an Coloimbia. Tha feadhainn dhe na companaidhean sin a' dol fhathast, seadh le an ainmean tùsail aca, seadh le ainmean ùra.
 
[[File:Coltejer-Medellin.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Chaidh anThe [[Tùr Coltejer Tower]], anthe togalachtallest asbuilding àirde ann amin Medellín, awas thogailbuilt eadarbetween 1968 agusand 1972, samhlaand eadar-nàiseantainternationally became a' bhailesymbol for the city.]]
 
====Trade Malairt ann amin Medellín ====
'S[[Coltejer]] eis one dheof nathe companaidheanmost figheimportant astextile cudromaichecompanies annin an Coloimbia a th' ann [[Coltejer]]Colombia. ChaidhIt awas stèidheachadhfounded ann amin Medellín leby Alejandro Echavarría 22on An22 DàmhairOctober 1907.<ref>Compañía Colombiana de Tejidos (''Colombian Textile Company'') Coltejer: [http://www.coltejer.com.co/empresa.htm History of the Company], [[Itagüí]], Colombia, Retrieved on on May 7th, 2008.</ref>
 
ThugadhThe nochdadhdiscovery of [[Gual|a' ghuailcoal]] ann anin [[Amagá]], naa laighefew corramiles mhìlesouth muof dheas a' Ghlinnethe Aburrá Valley, agusand the building togailof [[Hydroelectricity|ionadanhydroelectric dealain-uisgeplants]] cumhachdprovided dhathe nanew gnìomhachasanindustries ùrawith energy, agusand airthis sgàthallowed sinthe chaidhcreation iomadhof chompanaidheanmany beagasmaller a chruthachadhcompanies. ChuirThe RathadAntioquia Iarainn na h-AntioquiaRailway (ga thogail annbuilt anin 1875) conquered cruinn-eòlasthe fhirdifficult dhegeography naof sgìreanone asof beanntaichethe annmost anmountainous regions of [[AimearagaSouth a DeasAmerica]] fo smachd, gunotably h-àraidhwith anthe [[Tunail La Quiebra Tunnel]], awhich chruthaichconnected ceangail eadar teis-meadhan a'the ghnìomhachaisindustrial aguscenter anto the [[AbhainnMagdalena MhagdalenaRiver]], anthe abhainnmost mhòrmajor asnavigable so-sheòltariver annin an ColoimbiaColombia. ThogIn 1932 Medellín a'also chiadbuilt phort-adhairits aigefirst ann an 1932airport, amthe [[Port-adhair Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport]].<ref name="restrepo" />
 
SheallThe sgrùdadhstudy a rinnby [[Charles H. Savage]] muon dheidhinnindustrial a'production chinneasachaidhin gnìomhachasail ann anthe Antioquia eadarbetween 1960 agusand 1972 dìreachshows chohow cudromachimportant athe dh'fhàsMedellín naindustries gnìomhachasanbecame annto amColombia Medellínand airsonSouth ColoimbiaAmerica. agusHe Aimearagastudied athe Deas.consequences Rinnof esansocial sgrùdadhchange airproduced builby nathe atharraidheanintroduction sòisealtaof anew dh'adhbharaich an teis-eòlas ùrtechnology. Chùm Savage sùillooked mionaideachat airthree trìfactories taighean-gnìomhachais ann anin Antioquia: two thaigh-crèadhadaireachdpotteries ann anin [[Santuario]] agusand [[La Blanca]], a bharrachd air taigh-gnìomhachasand a' chlòthatailoring annfactory amnin Medellín. Cha robh Savage uasaladmired a-mhàinnot àonly toradhthe gnìomhachasailproduction naof taighean-gnìomhachasanthe annAntioquian an Antioquiafactories, achbut cuideachdalso àsthe anrelationship dàimhbetween eadarthe luchd-obrachworkers agusand fasdaidhearantheir employers, agusan dh'ainmichindustrial eefficiency anthat èifeachdashe ghnìomhachasailcalled sinthe "CultarCulture naof h-obrachWork".<ref> Savage presented his thesis "Factories in the Andes: Social Organization in a Developing Economy" for his Doctorate in Business Administration aigat the [[OilthighHarvard HarvardUniversity]] ann anin 1962.</ref> ChaidhHis naconclusions toraidheanwere aigepublished aby chur sa chlò leis a' cho-làimhaichehis aigecolleague [[George F. Lombardi]] fon ainmas ''[[Sons of the Machine]]''.<ref>{{Template:Cite bookcite
|last1=Savage|first1=Charles H., Jr.
|last2=Lombard|first2=George F. F.
|publisher=[[MIT Press]]
|publication-date=1986
}}</ref><ref>{{Template:Cite webcite
|url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/3105262
|title=Sons of the Machine: Case Studies of Social Change in the Workplace
|accessdate=May 6, 2008.
}}</ref>
Chaochail Savage ann an 1973.
 
Savage died in 1973.
=== Ealainn agus litreachas rè a' chiad phàirt na 20mh linn===
 
===Art and literature during the first part of the 20th century===
[[File:UNAL-Bloque M5-Facultad de Minas-Medellin.JPG|170px|thumb|left|Dàmh nam Mèinnean aig an Oilthigh Nàiseanta Coloimbia, earrann Mhedellín.]]
 
[[File:UNAL-Bloque M5-Facultad de Minas-Medellin.JPG|170px|thumb|left|Faculty of Mines of the National University of Colombia, Medellín branch.]]
Tha an [[Oilthigh Antioquia]], an [[Oilthigh Nàiseanta Colombia]] leis an earrann aige ann am Medellín, agus [[Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana]] (an Oilthigh Pàpanach Bolivarianach) air a bhith aig cridhe foghlam acadaimigeach a' bhaile aig ìre eachdraidheil agus iad a' treànadh clas inntleachdail a' cheàrna, aig ìre nàiseanta agus eadar-nàseanta.
 
The [[University of Antioquia]], the [[National University of Colombia]] with its Medellín branch, and the [[Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana]] have historically been the academic centers of the city and are responsible for the formation of an intellectual class in the region, with nationwide and international scope.
'S e eileamaid shòisealta chudromach a bh' ann an Ealain agus Litreachas ann am Medellín. Ghabh am baile pàirt ann an atharrachaidhean litreachais bho [[Romannsaidheachd]] gu [[Ealainn Nòdha Ùr]] agus bhuidhnean litreachas na linne ùir rè a' chiad leth dhen 20mh linn. Rinn an t-ùghdar [[Tomás Carrasquilla]] (1858 - 1940) mion-sgrùdadh air sluagh na h-Antioquia a bha aige fhèin, is chuir esan an cèill gu h-amaiseach am beatha làitheil agus na cleachdaidhean aca. Bha an t-ùghdar agus feallsanachd [[Fernando González (ùghdair)|Fernando González]] à [[Envigado]] (ann an ceàrn cathaireil a' Mhedellín), an dealbhadair na dealbhan-èibhinn [[Ricardo Rendón]] agus am bàrd [[León de Greiff]] a-measg luchd-stèidhichidh na ''Panidas'', buidheann litreachais à Medellín. Bha bàird agus ùghdairean cudromach eile ann, mar [[Phorfirio Barbajacob]] agus [[Efe Gómez]]. 'S e [[Eladio Vélez]] agus [[Pedro Nel Gómez]] na dealbhadairean a bu chlùitiche. Bha an ceòladair [[Carlos Vieco Ortiz]] uabhasach ainmeil. Bha na prìomh-oifisean aig companaidhean ciùil mar ''Sonolux'', ''Ondina'' agus ''Silver'' ann am Medellín.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
Arts and literature have been an important social element in Medellín. During the first part of the 20th century the city was part of the literary transition from [[romanticism]] to the modern art and literary movements of the new century. The writer [[Tomás Carrasquilla]] (1858 - 1940) focused on the people of his native Antioquia, accurately portraying their daily lives and customs. The writer and philosopher [[Fernando González (writer)|Fernando González]] from [[Envigado]] (in the metropolitan area of Medellín), the cartoonist [[Ricardo Rendón]] and the poet [[León de Greiff]] were some of the founders of ''Los Panidas'', a Medellín literary movement. Other featured poets and writers were [[Porfirio Barbajacob]] and [[Efe Gómez]]. In painting, the most famous were [[Eladio Vélez]] and [[Pedro Nel Gómez]]. [[Carlos Vieco Ortiz]] was a popular musician. Medellín became the headquarters of record labels like ''Sonolux'', ''Ondina'' and ''Silver''.<ref name="restrepo" />
Bha na clubaichean ann am Medellín, iomadh dhuibh le freumhan aig deireadh na 19mh linn mar an ''Club Union'' (stèidhichte ann an 1894) agus an ''Club Campestre'' (stèidhichte ann an 1924), aig cridhe buidhnean inntleachdail agus gnìomhachasail. Chaidh an ''Circo España'' (Siorcas na Spàinne) a chruthachadh ann an 1909 agus an ''Taigh -cluiche Bolívar'', ann an 1919. Chaidh an ''Taigh-cluiche Junín'' àlainn a sgrios airson an [[Tùr Coltejer]] a thogail. Chaidh ''Cine Colombia'', a' chiad chompanaidh sgaoilidh fhilmichean na dùthcha, a stèidheachadh ann am Medellín ann an 1927.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
Medellín clubs, many of them dating to the end of the 19th century, also became a center for intellectual and industrialist movements, like the ''Club Union'' (founded in 1894) and ''Club Campestre'' (founded in 1924). In 1909 the ''Circo España'' was created and ''Teatro Bolívar'', in 1919. The beautiful ''Teatro Junín'' was demolished to build the [[Coltejer Tower]]. ''Cine Colombia'', the first movie distributor of the country, was founded in Medellín in 1927.<ref name="restrepo" />
=== Plana Mòr Medellín ===
 
===Medellín Master Plan===
[[File:El Poblado Medellín(1).jpg|right|thumb|300px|[[El Poblado, Medellín|El Poblado]], sgìre beairt mu dheas, fear dhe na làraich cathaireil agus eaconamach as cudromaiche na Colombia.]]
 
[[File:El Poblado Medellín(1).jpg|right|thumb|300px|[[El Poblado, Medellín|El Poblado]], a wealthy southern district, is one of the most important urban and economic centers of Colombia.]]
Rè na 1950an dhealbhachadh luchd-gnìomhachas, luchd-malairt agus an Riaghaltas Ionadail Am "Plan Mòr Medellín" (PMM) (''Plan Pìdhleat''), plana airson leasachadh a' bhaile air feadh a' Ghlinne Aburrá agus mu dheireadh thall chruthachadh sin a' chiad cheàrn cathaireil ann an Coloimbia. 'S e [[Paul Wiener]] agus [[José Luis Sert]] na ailtirean a bha os cionn a' phròiseact. Bha cladhachadh na h-[[Aibhne Medellín]], stiùireachadh tuineachaidhean ùra air buthaich a' ghlinne, cruthachadh làraich gnìomhachasail ann an sgìre Guayabal, dealbhachadh cathaireil airson is gum biodh am baile ann an co-fhuaimneachd leis an abhainn, togail Pàirc Ball-Coise ùr, agus stèidheachadh làraich riaghal anns an ''La Alpujarra'' a-measg nam pròiseactan a bu chudromaiche anns a' PhMM.<ref name="restrepo" />
 
During the 1950s, industrialists, traders and local government created the "Medellín Master Plan" (MMP) (''Plan Piloto''), a plan for the expansion of the city into the Aburrá Valley that would lead to the creation of the first metropolitan area in Colombia. [[Paul Wiener]] and [[José Luis Sert]] were the architects who led the project. Among the main features of the MMP were the canalization of the [[Medellín River]], the control of new settlements on valley slopes, the creation of an industrial zone in the Guayabal District, the planning of the city to be in harmony with the river, the construction of a city stadium, and an administrative center in ''La Alpujarra''.<ref name="restrepo" />
Thòisich àm ùr dhe cugallachd phoiliteagach airson Choloimbia an dèidh mort tagraiche a' chinn-shuidheis [[Jorge Eliecer Gaitán]] ann an ùpraid air a bheil [[Am Bogotazo]], a thachair ann am [[Bogotá]] ann an 1949. Sgaoil an t-ainneart poiliteagach air feadh sgìrean dùthchail na tìre, agus bu chòir dha iomadh thuathanaich a theiche chun nam bailtean-mòra. Dh'èireadh sluagh Mhedellín gu luath rè nam bliadhnachan a thigeadh. Dh'fhàsadh bruthaich a' ghlinne loma-làn slumaichean. Bha 358,189 luchd-àiteachaidh anns a' bhaile ann an 1951, ach 22 bliadhna an dèidh sin, ann an 1973, bha an sluagh air a dhol suas trì tursan gu 1,071,252.
 
However, Colombia had entered a new era of political instability with the murder of presidential candidate [[Jorge Eliecer Gaitán]] in [[El Bogotazo|Bogotá]] in 1949. Political violence spread in the rural areas of Colombia, and farmers fled to the cities. The population of Medellín grew quickly in the next few years. The Valley slopes became overpopulated with slums. In 1951 the city had 358,189 inhabitants, but 22 years later, in 1973, the population had trebled to 1,071,252.
Thug an sluagh buaidh mhòr air a' PhMM. Dh'fhàs crìochan a' bhaile gu ruige àiteachan nach robh am broinn a' PhMM, is le sin thàinig Medellín dìreach ri taobh bailtean eile anns a' ghleann Aburrá, mar [[Envigado]], [[Bello]] agus [[Itagüí]]; 'S e teaghlaichean bochda a bh'ann na in-imrich ùra a fhuair Medellín, is iad gun creideis gus taighean a cheannaich, agus air sgàth sin chaidh iomadh sgìrean a thogail taobh a-muigh a' PhMM; Chaidh sgrios a chur air tòrr sheann thoglaichean ann am meadhan a' bhaile airson tùraichean àrda, oifisean agus rathadan mòra a thogail. Chaidh sgrios a chur air An ''Taigh-Cluiche Junín'', a bha cho àlainn ri taobh Santa Elena, dìreach gus an Tùr Coltejer a thogail. Solaraich an inimricheas mhòr gu Medellín luchd-obrach gu leòr airson leudachadh taighean-gnìomhachasan a' chlòtha, is iad a bhith ga ùrachadh aig an àm sin,<ref name="restrepo" /> ach chruthaich e trioblaidean ùra airson a' bhaile cuideachd: cion-cosnaidh na b'àirde, seirbheisean air dhìth dha na sgìrean bochda, ainneart cathaireil tro iomadh dhuibh, agus collapse an t-siostaim chòmhdhail. Abair àite foirfe airson am [[mafia]] a rinn droch chrom air a' bhaile fad na deicheadan a leanadh a chintinn, agus bu chòir dhan PhMM a dh'fheitheamh airson amannan nas fheàrr.
 
This population explosion had several consequences for the MMP. The urban limits of the city grew to areas that were not contemplated in the MMP, so that Medellín now reached the urban areas of other cities of the Aburrá Valley, like [[Envigado]], [[Bello]] and [[Itagüí]]; the new Medellín settlers were poor families without enough credit to buy their own homes, so several neighborhoods were built beyond the MMP; several old downtown buildings were demolished to construct tall towers, offices and avenues. The beautiful and traditional Junin Theatre along the Santa Elena was demolished to build the Coltejer Tower. The huge migration into Medellín provided workers for the expansion of textile factories, being modernized at this period,<ref name="restrepo" /> but it also created new problems for the city: higher unemployment, lack of services for poor areas, urban violence in several districts, and collapse of any transport system. It was the perfect setting for the development of the [[mafia]] that plagued the city in the following decades, while the MMP had to wait for better times.
=== Beò Cultarail fad na deicheadan a dh'fhalbh ===
 
===Cultural life in the last decades===
[[File:La Raza de Rodrigo Arenas Betancur-Medellin.JPG|240 px|thumb|right|Càrn-Cuimhne "La Raza" (A' Chinneadh), obair ann ann umha agus crudhtan le [[Rodrigo Arenas|Rodrigo Arenas Betancur]], 124 troighean. Tha e stèidhichte aig Talla a' Bhaile ann an La Alpujarra.]]
 
[[File:La Raza de Rodrigo Arenas Betancur-Medellin.JPG|240 px|thumb|right|"La Raza" Monument, a work in bronze and concrete by [[Rodrigo Arenas|Rodrigo Arenas Betancur]], 124 feet tall. It is located in La Alpujarra Administrative Centre.]]
Nochd ginealach ùr dhe ùghdairean agus luchd-ealainn, le nòs na b'ùire, ann am Medellín anns na 1950an. Chàineadh iomadh ùghdair an cultar ionadail agus nàiseanta. Chuir [[Manuel Mejía Vallejo]] nòs aithriseach ùr air bhonn gun a chuid fhreumhan ionadail fhàgail. 'S e cuideachd linn an [[Nadaismo]] a bh'ann, buidheann litreachasis a chaidh a chur suas le [[Gonzalo Arango]] agus iomadh eile. Bha an Nadaismo ana-chèireachail gu fosgailte, is e a' càineadh bun-nòsan traidiseanta a' chomainn-shòisealta, agus bhathar a' beachdachadh gu robh e [[nihilism|nihilist]] aig ìre feallsanachail. Bha an dealbhadair [[Debora Arango]] an sàs ann an saoghal sòisealta agus poiliteagach na dùthcha leis a cuid obrach. 'S e dealbhadair ainmeil eile a thug cliù dha Medellín tro mheadhan an ealainn a bh'ann [[Fernando Botero]], a fhuair brosnachadh airson a chuid obrach ann am beatha làitheil agus dràma a' bhaile. Thug esan a' mhòr-chuid dhen obair a rinn e do [[Thaigh-Tasgaidh na h-Antioquia]] mar thabhartas, agus chuir am baile taingeil an t-ainm aige fhèin dhan [[Cheàrnag Bhotero]]. Rè na 1970an thogadh am fear-ealainn [[Rodrigo Arenas|Rodrigo Arenas Betancur]] na deilbheadhean chàrn-cuimhne aige ann am Medellín ach cuideachd fad iomadh sgìrean eile air feadh Choloimbia. 'S e ùmhlachd dhan chultar [[Paisa]] a tha an obair ainmeil aige, ''La Raza'' (A' Chinneadh), stèidhichte anns an làrach riaghlach La Alpujarra.
 
The 1950s saw in a new generation of writers and artists in Medellín, with a more modern style. Many writers criticised local and national culture. [[Manuel Mejía Vallejo]] established a new narrative style without abandoning his regional origins. It was also the time of [[Nadaism]], a literary movement founded by [[Gonzalo Arango]] and many others. Nadaism was openly anti-clerical, criticising traditional institutions of society, and was considered philosophically [[nihilism|nihilist]]. The painter [[Debora Arango]] entered the social and political arena of Colombia with her works. Another painter who made Medellín famous in art was [[Fernando Botero]], who found the inspiration for his work in the daily life and drama of the city. He donated most of his works to the [[Museum of Antioquia]], and the grateful city dedicated [[Botero Square]] to him. In the 1970s the artist [[Rodrigo Arenas|Rodrigo Arenas Betancur]] erected his monumental sculptures not only in Medellín but also in many other regions of Colombia. His famous work, the ''Monument to the Race'' in La Alpujarra Administrative Center, was homage to the [[Paisa]] culture.
Thoir iomadh ionadan cultarail beò dhan bhaile, mar an Taigh-Chluiche Pablo Tobón Uribe (1967), Taigh-Tasgaidh an Ealainn Nòis Ùir (1978), agus An Taigh-Tasgaidh Cathaireil (1987). Fhuair An Taigh-Tasgaidh Traidiseanta na h-Antioquia an darna fhosgladh oifigeil aige le mòran dhen chuid obrach a rinn Fernando Botero ann an 2000. Tha oilthighean ùra air a fhosgladh anns a' bhaile cuideachd: [[Oilthigh Medellín]] (1950) agus [[Universidad EAFIT|Oilthigh Eafit]] (1960).
 
Many cultural centers enrich the city, such as the Pablo Tobón Uribe Theatre (1967), the Modern Art Museum (1978), and the Metropolitan Theatre (1987). In 2000 the traditional Museum of Antioquia had a second official opening with many works of Fernando Botero. New universities also opened in the city: [[Medellín University]] (1950) and [[Universidad EAFIT|Eafit University]] (1960).
=== Rannsachadh ===
Tha an American Geographical Society ag obair air pròiseact airson clàr-leabhraichean brìgheil coileanta an Comuna 13, fear dhe na mòran sgìrean ann am Medellín, a chruthachadh.
 
=== An latha an-diugh Research===
The American Geographical Society is currently working on a project to assemble a complete virtual bibliography of Comuna 13, one of the many barrios of Medellín.{{Fact|date=March 2009}}
 
===Today===
[[File:Biblioteca España(1)-Medellin.JPG|thumb|left|240px|Leabharlann na Spàinne, structar ailtireil ùr-nòsach mòr ann an crudhtan ga thogail air bàrr a' bheinn ann am Medellín]]
 
[[File:Biblioteca España(1)-Medellin.JPG|thumb|left|240px|The Spain Library, a huge modern piece of concrete architecure built at the top of one of the peaks of Medellín]]
'S e an suidheachadh gur e am baile as cudromaiche taobh ghnìomhachais ann an Coloimbia a th'ann Medellín an rud a bu mhotha a chuidich am baile staing na 1980an agus na 1990an a cheannsachadh. Tha am baile uabhasach moiteil às am [[Metro de Medellín]], seirbheis còmhdhail cathaireil mòr, agus 's ean aon rud bhon a' Phlan Mòr Medellín na 1950an air a nochdadh gus an latha an-diugh a th'ann. Chaidh togail Ceàrnag a' Mhedellín, ionad eadar-nàiseanta airson cruinneachaidhean agus taisbanaidhean, a dhealbhadh gus [[eaconomaidh]] eadar-nàiseanta na Coloimbia a shealltainn dhan shaoghal. 'S e baile ùr-nòsach le sluagh dhe trì muillean daoine a th'ann Medellín an-diugh.
 
The position of Medellín as the top industrial city in Colombia has been a main factor in overcoming its crisis of the 1980s and 1990s. The [[Metro de Medellín]], a massive urban transport service, became the pride of the city, and so far the only sign of the Medellín Master Plan of the 1950s. The construction of the [[Plaza Mayor of Medellín]], an international center for congresses and expositions, was designed to show the [[Globalization|globalized]] economy of Colombia to the world. Medellín is today a modern city with a population of three million.
Lughdaich an ainneart a bh'ann fad iomadh bhliadhna cnapan-stàrraidh sòisealta is iad ag adhbharachadh mòran dhragh shòisealta. Cheangail am Metro am baile-mòr ri chèile, bho sgìrean bochda gu sgìrean beairt, agus thathar a' dealbhachadh siostam ùr dhe bhusaichean poblach, air a bheil am "Metroplus." Tha àiteachan ann am Medellín an-diugh airson ealainn, [[bàrdachd,]] dràma, a bharrachd air togail leabharlainn poblach, stèidheachadh eco-pàircean ùra, leis na daoine an sàs ann an leasachadh a' bhaile.<ref>Nelson Alcantara: [http://www.decolombia.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=46&Itemid=35 Colombia’s Medellín: City transformed], February 23, 2008. De Colombia Net. Retrieved on May 7, 2008.</ref>{{clear}}
 
The former violence also served the purpose of demolishing the high social barriers that were the basis of many social evils. The same Metro joined the whole city, from poor to rich districts, and a new system of public buses is being planned with the so-called "Metroplus." Today's Medellín includes spaces for art, poetry, drama, the construction of public libraries, the foundation of new ecological parks, and the inclusion of people of the city in its development.<ref>Nelson Alcantara: [http://www.decolombia.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=46&Itemid=35 Colombia’s Medellín: City transformed], February 23, 2008. De Colombia Net. Retrieved on May 7, 2008.</ref>{{clear}}
== Cruinne-Eòlas agus Clìomaid ==
 
==Geography and climate==
[[File:allmhurach medellín bho enciso.jpg|thumb|right|Sealladh air Medellín bho Enciso]]
 
[[File:HPIM0506.JPG|thumb|right|View of Medellín at night]]
Tha farrsaingeachd dhe 382&nbsp;km² (237 mìle cheàrnagach) aig Medellín. Tha 16 ''comunas'' (sgìrean), 5 ''corregimientos'' (bailtean beaga), agus 271 ''barrios'' (sgìrean cathaireil) ann.
Tha [[Ceàrn Cathaireil a' Mhedellín]] am broinn a' Ghlinne Aburrá gu lèir, aig 1,500 meatair (mu 4921 troighean) os cionn ìre na mara, leis an [[Abhainn Mhedellín]] (ris an canar Porce cuideachd), ga sruthadh mu thuath. Tha na bailtean [[Bello]], [[Copacabana]], [[Girardota]] agus [[Barbosa]] mu thuath a' ghlinne. Tha [[Itagüí]], [[Envigado]], [[Sabaneta]], [[La Estrella]] agus [[Caldas]] mu dheas a' ghlinne.
 
Medellín has an area of 382&nbsp;km² (237 square miles). It has 16 ''[[comuna]]s'' (districts), 5 ''[[corregimiento]]s'' (townships), and 271 ''[[barrio]]s''.
Chan eil an clìomaid ann am Medellín cho teth ma iomadh bhaile eile gan stèidheachadh aig an aon domhan-leud dlùth air meadhan-chearcall na cruinne o chionns gu bheil e na laighe aig 1,500 m os cionn ìre na mara. Leis gu bheil e na laighe cho àrd os cionn na mara agus air sgàth gu bheil làrach sònraichte aige am broinn na h-Andes, tha an aimsir ann am Medellín nas coltaiche ri [[clìomaid fo-throipigeach fliuch]] na [[clìomaid troipigeach]]. Tha teodhlachd mheadhanach bhliadhnail aige dhe 22&nbsp;°C (72&nbsp;°F), agus leis gu bheil e faisg air a' mheadhan-chearcall, tha an teodhachd gu math seasmhach fad am bliadhna, le mion-atharrachaidhean na teodhachd. Tha an teodhachd a' dol bho 15&nbsp;°C (52&nbsp;°F) gu 30&nbsp;°C (86&nbsp;°F). 'S e 'La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera' neo 'Baile an Fhoghar Bith-bhuan' am far-ainm aig Medellín o chions gu bheil clìomaid càillear fogharmhor aige, ach leis gu bheil am baile na laighe ann an gleann tha mòran sgìrean shuas air an leathad, tha ann teodhachd beagan nas fhuaire anns na beanntan mu thimcheall.
The [[metropolitan area]] of Medellín lies within the Aburrá valley at an elevation of 1,500 meters (about 4921 feet) and is bisected by the [[Medellín River]] (also called Porce), which flows northward. North of the valley are the towns of [[Bello, Antioquia|Bello]], [[Copacabana, Antioquia|Copacabana]], [[Girardota]] and [[Barbosa, Antioquia|Barbosa]]. To the south of the valley lie [[Itagüí]], [[Envigado]], [[Sabaneta, Antioquia|Sabaneta]], [[La Estrella]] and [[Caldas]].
 
Because Medellín is located at {{convert|5000|ft|m|-2|abbr=on}} above sea level, its climate is not as hot as other cities located at the same latitude near the equator. Because of its altitude above sea level and privileged location in the Andes Range, Medellín's weather is more characteristic of a [[Humid subtropical climate]] rather than that of a [[Tropical climate]]. The city's average annual temperature is 22 °C (72 °F), and because of its proximity to the equator, its temperature is constant year round, with minimal temperature variations. Temperatures range from 15 °C (52 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F). Because of the pleasant springlike climate all year, Medellín is known as 'La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera' or 'City of the Eternal Spring'. However, as the city is located in a valley and many of its districts are on slopes, temperatures can be slightly cooler on the surrounding mountains.
 
<!--Infobox begins-->
|accessdate=2008-09-26}}<!--Infobox ends-->
 
==Administrative divisions==
== Sgìrean Riaghlach ==
 
[[File:Comunas de Medellin.png|thumb|right|''Comunas'' neo sgìrean ann amof Medellín]]
[[File:Corregimientos de Medellin.png|thumb|right|''Corregimientos'' (bailteantownships, airrural an dùthaichareas) a'of MhedellínMedellín]]
 
Medellín is a city governed by a [[republicanism|republican]] democratic system as stated in the [[Colombian Constitution of 1991]], with decentralized government. Administration is shared by the [[Mayor]] of Medellín and the Municipal Council, both elected by popular vote.
'S e baile fo shiostam deamocratach [[poblachdach]] fon [[Bun-Reachd|Bhun-Reachd]] Coloimbia bho 1991 a th'ann Medellín, leis an righaltas aige air a sgapadh. Compartichidh [[Pròbhaist]] a' Mhedellín agus An Comhairle riaghladh a' bhaile, is iad air a thaghadh tro bhòtadh poblach.
 
ThaThe iomadhmunicipality roinneanis oifigeilmade up of official departments (''secretarías'') ann,including department roinneanfor airson luaineachdsocial shòisealtamobility, cultarurban cathaireilculture, leasachadhsocial sòisealtadevelopment, foghlameducation, sgrùdadhevaluation agusand amchdcontrol, riaghaltasgovernment, goireasanresources, obraicheanpublic poblachworks, seirbheiseanadministrative riaghlaichservices, àrainneachdenvironment, mnathanwomen, còmhdhailtransport, roinna coitcheanngeneral department, agusand roinn prìobhaideacha namprivate measgdepartment. There Aare bharrachdalso aiemany sindepartments thawith iomadha roinncertain neo-eisimeileach annautonomy: am the [[Port-Adhair Olaya Herrera Airport]], anthe LeabhalannPublic PoblachLibrary (''Biblioteca Pública Piloto''), Colaistethe naCollege of h-Antioquia (''Colegio Mayor''), Companaidhthe LeasachaidhUrban ChathaireilDevelopment Enterprise (EDU), Companaidhthe naPublic SeirbheiseanService PhoblachEnterprise (EEPPM), agus Institiùidthe Sport Spòrsand agusRecreation Cur-seachadanInstitute (INDER), Companaidheanthe ChoitcheannGeneral a'Enterprises Mhedellínof Medellín (EEVVM), Stèiseananthe a'Medellín BhusBus Mhedellínstations, anthe General t-OspadalHospital Coitcheannof Medellín, the health service enterprise "Metrosalud", (airson [[slàinte]]),the InstitiùidMetropolitan ChathaireilInstitute anof Teic-EòlaisTechnology (ITM), the [[Metro de Medellín]], Metroparquesthe (osDepartment cionnfor nathe pàircean)Administration agusof Metroseguridadthe (airsonMedellín teàrainnteachdparks (Metroparques) and Metroseguridad.
 
The city belongs to the Medellín Metropolitan Area, which is made up of ten municipalities. Medellín is divided into six zones and these are subdivided into 16 ''comunas'' (communes). The [[barrio]]s and urban institutional areas make up the communes. More than 249 barrios and five [[corregimiento|townships]] are part of the municipality of Medellín.
 
==== Roinnean Zones====
 
* Roinn an earrSouth-dheas eastern sgìreZone: [[El Poblado (Medellín)|El Poblado]] communes.
* RoinnSouth-western an iar-dheasZone: sgìrean Guayabal agusand Belén communes.
* RoinnWest anCentral iar-mheadhannachZone: sgìrean Laureles, La América agusand San Javier communes.
* RoinnEast earr-mheadhannachCentral Zone: sgìrean La Candelaria, Villa Hermosa agusand Buenos Aires communes.
* RoinnNorth-western an iar-thuathZone: sgìrean Castilla, Doce de Octubre agusand Robledo communes.
* RoinnNorth-eastern an earr-thuathZone: sgìrean Aranjuez, Manrique, Popular agusand Santa Cruz communes.
* Corregimientos[[Corregimiento]]s (bailtean beagatownships): San Sebastián de Palmitas, San Cristóbal, Altavista, San Antonio de Prado agusand Santa Elena.
 
{{wide image|medellin_panorama.jpg|1111px|Panorama}}
== An lagh agus an riaghaltas ==
Tha am Poiliteags agus an Lagh gu math buillsgeanach ann an Coloimbia; tha sin a' ciallachadh gum bithear ag aontachadh agus a' gabhail ris a' chuid as motha dhe na laghan ann am [[Bogotá]], a' phrìomh-bhaile. A dh'aindeoin sin, mar bhaile-mòr, nì Medellín a dhìcheall taobh riaghlach a' cheàrna. Tha Riaghaltas a' Bhaile ga sgarradh eadar earrann an riaghaltais fhèin agus an earrann reachdail. Thathar a' tagh Pròbhaist a' Bhaile (El Alcalde) gu poblach airson ceann-aimsir dhe ceithear bliadhna (dìreach mar Cheann-Suidhe na dùthcha agus Riaghladair gach uile Ceàrna ann an Coloimbia).
 
===Law Eucoirand =government==
Politics and law in Colombia are centralized; that is, most laws are agreed on and passed in the capital city of [[Bogotá]]. However, as a major city, Medellín also pulls its weight. The government of the City of Medellín is divided into [[executive]] and [[legislative]] branches. The Mayor of the City (Alcalde) is publicly elected for a term of four years (just like the President and the Governor of any other Department in Colombia).
'Se am baile a b' ainneartaiche san t-saoghal a bh'ann Medellín o shean. Fhuair e an t-ainm uabhasach sin mar thoradh a' chogaidh cathaireil a rinn na drug cartels aig deireadh na 1980an. Mar dhachaigh [[Cairteil a' Mhedellín|A' Chairteil Mhedellín]], le Uachdaran na Drogaichean [[Pablo Escobar]] os a chionn, bha am baile na h-ìobairteach an uabhais a dh' adhbharaich an cogadh eadar a' bhuidheann sin agus a cuid nàmhaidean. Ach thoisich ìre na h-eucorach a dhol sìos an dèidh bhàis Escobar. Bha ìre na h-eucorach fhathast gu math àrd rè na 1990an, ged a rachdadh e sìos beag air bheag an coimeas ris na bliadhnachan a bu mhiosa. Anns An Dàmhair 2002 dh'òrdaich [[Álvaro Uribe|Álvaro Uribe Vélez]], ceann-suidhe na Coloimbia, gun tugadh an t-airm gu buil “Operación Orión”, is iad ag amas air mailisidhean chathaireil na FARC agus na AUC a leigeil ma sgaoil<ref>BBC. "Fuego cruzado en Medellín." 17 October 2002. BBCMundo.com. 3 May 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_2337000/2337667.stm>.</ref>. Eadar 2003 agus 2006 chaidh di-fheachdachadh na mailisidhean chathaireil na AUC a bh'ann fhathast a thoirt gu buil, agus leig a bharrachd air 3,000 fir fo armaibh an cuid armachd dheth<ref>Valencia, German Dario. "Balance del progrma de desmovilizacion." Marzo 2008. www.medellincomovamos.org. 3 May 2009 <http://www.medellincomovamos.org/como_vamos_en/descargas/Consulta%20a%20experto.%20Balance%20programa%20de%20desmovilizacion.pdf></ref>. Tha ìre na h-eucorach ann am Medellín air a lughdachadh gu brìgheil. Tha ìre na h-eucorach ann am Medellín gu math àbhaisteach do bhaile-mòr ann an Aimearaga-Laideannach gus an latha an-diugh.
 
== Eaconamaidh =Crime===
Medellín was once known as the most violent city in the world. This terrible title was the result of an urban war set off by the drug cartels at the end of the 1980’s. As the home of the [[Medellín Cartel]], headed by the drug lord [[Pablo Escobar]], the city was the victim of the terror caused by the war between this organization and its enemies. However, after the death of Escobar, the crime rates in the city began to decrease. Throughout the 1990’s the crime rates remained relatively high, although gradually declining from the worst years. In October 2002 the Colombian president, [[Álvaro Uribe]], ordered the military to complete “Operation Orion,” whose objective was to disband the urban militias of the FARC and the AUC<ref>BBC. "Fuego cruzado en Medellín." 17 October 2002. BBCMundo.com. 3 May 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_2337000/2337667.stm>.</ref>. Between 2003 and 2006 the demobilization of the remaining urban militias of the AUC was completed, with more than 3,000 armed men giving up their weapons<ref>Valencia, German Dario. "Balance del progrma de desmovilizacion." Marzo 2008. www.medellincomovamos.org. 3 May 2009 <http://www.medellincomovamos.org/como_vamos_en/descargas/Consulta%20a%20experto.%20Balance%20programa%20de%20desmovilizacion.pdf></ref>. The crime rate in Medellín has been significantly reduced. At this date, the crime rate in Medellín is relatively normal for a large city in Latin America.
 
==Economy==
'S e [[stàilinn]], [[a' chlò]], [[aodach]], [[biadh]] agus [[deoch]], [[àiteachas]] (bho na sgìrean dùthchasail), [[seirbheisean poblach]], stuthan ceimeagach and pharmaceuticals, refined [[ola]], agus [[dìthean]] a tha aig cridhe an eaconomaidh.
 
[[File:Edificio Argos-Medellin.JPG|thumb|left|150px|Headquarters of Argos Company, the first cement industrial group of Colombia.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.argos.com.co/wps/portal/!ut/p/kcxml/04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLN4i3MPMASYGYxqb6kWhCjgiRIH1vfV-P_NxU_QD9gtzQiHJHR0UAcrHMnA!!/delta/base64xml/L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82XzBfQ0k!|title = Data on ''Cementos Argos''}}</ref>]]
Tha an turasachd air a dhol gu math air adhart anns na bliadhnachan a dh'fhalbh.
 
The present-day economy of Medellín is one of the largest in Colombia and is led by a powerful group of people from the private sector known as the ''Grupo Empresarial Antioqueño'' (Antioquian Enterprises Group). It was formerly known as the ''Sindicato Antioqueño'' (Antioquian Union), but after being mistaken abroad for a labor union, which hampered its international growth for many years, a new formal name was chosen. It is represented by David Bojanini, head of Suramericana de Seguros (an insurance conglomerate); Carlos Piedrahita of the Compañía Nacional de Chocolates (food industry); José Alberto Velez of Cementos Argos (a multinational cement company); and Jorge Londoño, head of Bancolombia, NYSE (cib), (Colombia's largest bank). This group has an aggregate market capitalization of approximately US $17 billion dollars, and employs more than 80,000 Colombians.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.suleasing-intl.com/Colombia/ColGrupoSura.asp|title = Grupo Empresarial Antioqueño|publisher = suleasing-intl.com|accessdate = October 15, 2006}}</ref>
== Leasachadh Cathaireil ==
 
This group also participates in other sectors of the city industry and is an active trader in the Colombian stock exchange. Medellín serves as headquarters for many national and multinational companies.
[[File:DosEsculturasBoteroMedellín.jpg |thumb|left|A' Cheàrnag Bhotero]]
 
The main economic products are [[steel]], [[textile]]s, [[confection]]s, food and [[beverage]], [[agriculture]] (from its rural area), [[public services]], chemical products and pharmaceuticals, refined [[oil]], and [[flower]]s.
Tha e uabhasach soilleir gu bheil am baile ga leasachadh ann an dòigh làidir, gu h-àraidh leis cho pailt a tha na tùran àrda ùra a thathar a' togail. Aig an ìre seo tha Medellín a' deànamh nas fheàrr na gach uile baile-mòr eile na dùthcha Bogotá, prìomh-bhaile na nàisein agus cridhe an eaconomaidh, nam measg, taobh togail agus dealbhachadh tùran àrda ùra. Anns an t-Sultainn 2008, bhathar a' togail 127 tùran àrda ann am Medellín, 25 gam àideachadh, agus 17 gam moladh.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=101122|title = Skyscrapers of Medellín}}</ref>{{clear}}
 
[[Tourism]] has strongly developed in Medellín in recent years.
== Foghlam ==
 
===Gross domestic product===
[[File:Plazuela CentralUdeA.JPG|right|thumb|200px|A' Chèarnag Mheadhanach aig an [[Oilthigh Antioquia]]]]
 
[[File:Edificio EPM-Fachada- Este-Medellin.JPG|right|thumb|150px|''Edificio Inteligente'' (The "Intelligent Tower")]]
Tha a bharrchd air 30 oilthighean ann am Medellín is iad a' sgaoileadh an fhoghlaim air feadh na h-Antioquia, an "Eje Cafetero" (sgìre [[cofaidh|a' Chofaidh]]) agus Costa na Cairib. 'S e Oilthigh na h-Antioquia, an t-Oilthigh Nàiseanta Coloimbia agus an Colaiste Jaime Isaza Cadavid (poblach), agus an t-Oilthigh EAFIT, Oilthigh Medellín, An t-Oilthigh Pàpanach Bolivarianach, an t-Oilthigh San Buenaventura, Sgoil Inneallaidearachd na h-Antioquia, Oilthigh Santo Tomas, SENA (Seibheis Nàiseanta Ionnsachaidh) agus CES am feadhainn as cudromaiche. A bharrachd air sin, tha ionadan teic-eòlais curomaich ann, mar ITM (Institiùd Nàiseanta an Teic-Eòlais).
 
According to [[Proexport Colombia]], the [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) can be studied in two areas: Medellín as the [[Metropolitan Area of Medellín]] and Medellín itself. As a Metro Area, it contributes 67% of the total GDP of the State of Antioquia. The city of Medellín alone contributes 55% of the GDP of the state. The State of Antioquia itself is the second greatest economic region of Colombia. By 2005, Antioquia's GDP was more than USD 14,700, and it is the top exporting state in Colombia.<ref name="revista-semana-1329">Revista Semana (2007): «Ruta Empresarial», en Semana, vol. II, Edición especial, Nº 1329. p. 106.</ref> The Aburrá Valley is the top economy in the state and its GDP was USD 7,800 million.<ref name="ProExport16"/>
[[File:Biblioteca-EAFIT.JPG‎|Seo leabharlann an Oilthigh EAFIT|right|thumb|200px|Leabharlann an Oilthigh Prìobhaideach EAFIT.]]
 
Medellín contributes 8% of the national GDP of Colombia. With the GDP of [[Valle del Cauca|Valle del Cauca State]], the total is 11%. Medellín is the second economic region in Colombia, after [[Bogotá]], in 2005.
Rè an deichead mu dheireadh, tha Riaghaltas a' bhaile air foghlam poblach, togail sgoiltean is leabharlainn anns na sgìrean bochda a bhrosnachadh. Tha seann traidisean dhe sgoiltean agus colaistean prìobhaideach anns a' bhaile, iomadh dhuibh gan ruith leis an Eaglais [[Caitligeach]], buidhnean prìobhaideach, agus feadhainn bho thall thairis. Tha na sgoiltean Columbus, Theodoro Hertzl, San Ignacio de Loyola, Cumbres, Colombo Britanico, El Corazonista, Marymount, Montessori, na àrd-sgoiltean Los Pinares, Los Alcázares, San José De La Salle, Jorge Robledo, a sgoil Teicnigeach Salesianach Pedro Justo Berrío, [[Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana|An Oilthigh Pàpanach Bolivarianach]], agus mòran eile nam measg.
 
The 2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport and the International Cooperation Agency of Medellín concluded that Medellín was at the same level of GDP contribution to the national economy as cities like [[Panama City|Panama]] in Panama, and [[San José de Costa Rica]]. The % GDP contribution of Medellín to the national economy was superior to cities like [[Monterrey]] in [[Mexico]] (6,47%); [[Cali]] in [[Colombia]] (6,26%) and [[Miami]] in [[United States|USA]] (0,58%).<ref name="ProExport16" />
Thoir iomadh non-governmental organizations agus buidhnean oifigeil taic do development airson chloinne agus òganaich bho na sgìrean bochda. Tha Baile [[Don Bosco]] a' toirt cùram gu [[clannn na sràide]].<ref>[http://www.ciudaddonbosco.org Ciudad Don Bosco Medellín], ionad cùram do chlann na sràide.</ref> An dèidh sìtheachadh a' bhaile thàinig buidhnean dha na sgìrean a bu bhochda is iad ag obair còmhla ris na daoine òga a bha an sàs ann an ainneart cathaireil, gus na cothroman aca a leasachadh. Bha pàirt cudromach cuideachd aig na oilthighean ann am Medellín, poblach agus prìobhaideach, còmhla ri buidhnean nàiseanta agus eadar-nàiseanta.
{{clear}}
===Medellín Cluster===
 
[[File:CIC(5)-Medellin.JPG|thumb|200px|right|International Centre for Congresses and Expositions "Plaza Mayor" of Medellín, La Alpujarra area.]]
 
Medellín created the first Colombian [[business cluster]]. The city is the top exporting region of the country, with 1,750 export businesses based in Medellín.<ref name="revista-semana-1329" /> The Cluster was created with the support of the Chamber of Commerce of Medellín and the City Administration for an actual total of 21,000 companies that share 40% of total exports, 25% of the regional GDP, and 40% of Metro Area employment.<ref name="revista-semana-1329" /> The main economic activities of the Medellín Cluster (MC) are in [[electricity generation]], [[textile]], [[fashion design]], [[construction]], [[tourism]] and [[business]].<ref>Cámara de Comercio de Medellín. [http://www.camaramed.org.co/quees.html Comunidad Clusters].</ref> One current goal of the Medellín Cluster is to include health services, an important sector in the local economy.
 
===Tourism industry===
 
In the past decade, Medellín has become a destination for national and international tourism. The city has the infrastructure to supply the demands of a tourist industry at any level. As a trade and industrial center, its tourism tends to be based on business, congresses, international and national meetings, and health tourism, due to its world reputation in medicine and its modern health centers. Plaza Mayor was built for congresses and expositions with all the facilities of any international space of such kind. Several hotels are specialized in this kind of events, most of them with halls and meeting rooms for conventions, seminars, rooms with offices, translation services and many other facilities for business people. In health services, Medellín is a leader in [[plastic surgery]], [[organ transplant]]s, and health treatments related to [[cancer]] and [[Circulatory system pathology]].
 
The Aburrá Valley is a favourite place for photographers. High mountains surround the city like blue-green walls, and there are several parks. The [[Arví Regional Park]], a park of 11,241 hectares (ca 28,000 acres) in the Santa Elena Township, is one of the most visited. It is a place for camping, ecological scouting, and stunning views of the city. On many other surrounding hills there are tourist spots for scenery, restaurants, music and dance, shopping and ecology.
 
December is one of the best times to visit Medellín. The city is adorned with thousand of colorful lights and designs that attract national and international visitors.
 
Among the many Catholic churches in the city, the most visited are the Metropolitan Cathedral in the Bolívar Square (downtown), said to be the biggest brick-only sacred building in the world, 45 metres high, with an area of 5,000 metres square. Other old churches downtown include the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria; the Veracruz Church—one of the oldest in the Aburrá Valley; the churches of Saint Ignatius, Saint Joseph, and Saint Anthony; and many others.
 
<gallery>
File:Quebrada Santa Elena-corregimiento.JPG|Santa Elena Creek
File:Pano Plazo Botero.jpg|Botero Square and the [[Museum of Antioquia]].
File:Christmas2004inMedellín.JPG|Christmas celebrations, [[Medellín River]], 2004
</gallery>
 
Medellín is also a city of museums, sculptures, and popular festivals such as the ''Feria de las Flores'' (Flower Festival), ''Desfile de Mitos y Leyendas'' (Myths and Legends Parade), International Festival of Poetry, the ''Feria Taurina'' (Bull Festival), and many others. There are also concerts, theatre, opera, parks, tourist areas and a very busy nightlife with the traditional ''rumba''.
 
==Urban development==
 
[[File:HPIM1184.JPG|thumb|right|Botero Square]]
 
There are signs of heavy urban development within the city of Medellín, particularly with the construction of new skyscrapers. Medellín is currently outpacing all other major Colombian cities, including Bogotá, the nation's capital and economic center, in the construction and proposed development of new high-rises. As of September 2008, there were 127 high-rises under construction in Medellín, including 25 being approved, and 17 being proposed.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=101122|title = Skyscrapers of Medellín}}</ref>{{clear}}
 
==Education==
 
[[File:Plazuela CentralUdeA.JPG|right|thumb|200px|The Central Plaza in the [[University of Antioquia]]]]
 
Medellín is also home to over 30 universities that serve mainly the Antioquia State, the "Eje Cafetero" ([[Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis]]) region and the Caribbean Coast. Among the most important are the public universities [[Universidad de Antioquia]], [[Universidad Nacional de Colombia|Universidad Nacional]] and Politecnico Jaime Isaza Cadavid, and the private EAFIT University, Universidad de Medellín, [[Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana]], Universidad de San Buenaventura, [[Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia]], Universidad Santo Tomas, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA and CES. There are also important technological centers such as the Metropolitan Institute of Technology (ITM).
 
[[File:Biblioteca-EAFIT.JPG‎|This is the Library Universidad EAFIT|right|thumb|200px|The Library of Private EAFIT University.]]
 
During the last decade, the administration of the city has emphasized public education, building schools and libraries in poor quarters. Private schools and colleges have a long tradition in the city, many run by the [[Catholic Church]], private organizations, and foreign institutions. Among of them are the Columbus School, Theodoro Hertzl School, San Ignacio de Loyola School, Colegio Colombo Britanico, El Corazonista School, Marymount School, Montessori School, Gimnasio Los Pinares, Gimnasio Los Alcázares, San José De La Salle, Instituto Jorge Robledo, the [[Salesian]] Technical School [[Pedro Justo Berrío]], Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Colegio Cumbres and many others.
== Còmhdhail ==
 
Many non-governmental organizations and official organizations support the development of children and youth from poor communities. [[Ciudad Don Bosco]] cares for [[street children]].<ref>[http://www.ciudaddonbosco.org Ciudad Don Bosco Medellín], a center for street children.</ref> The pacification of the city brought organizations to the poorest quarters to work with youth involved in urban violence, in order to improve their opportunities. Medellín universities, public and private, also played a role, along with official institutions both local and national.
 
==Transport==
=== Còmhdhail Adhair ===
{{Unreferenced section|date=March 2009}}
[[File:Aeropuerto Jose Maria Cordova-Exterior1.JPG|thumb|left|[[Port-Adhair Eadar-nàiseanta José María Córdova]]]]
===Air transportation===
[[File:Aeropuerto Olaya Herrera-Medellin.JPG|thumb|right|[[Port-Adhair Olaya Herrera]]]]
[[File:Aeropuerto Jose Maria Cordova-Exterior1.JPG|thumb|left|[[José María Córdova International Airport]]]]
[[File:Aeropuerto Olaya Herrera-Medellin.JPG|thumb|right|[[Olaya Herrera Airport]]]]
 
Tha amThe [[Port-Adhair Eadar-nàiseanta José María Córdova International Airport]] (MDE) annis anin [[Rionegro]], baileanother eilemunicipality aneast àirde an earof Medellín, taobhand a-muighoutside a'the ghlinneAburrá AburráValley. Tha eIt a'serves frithealadhboth cinn-uidheinternational nàiseantaand agusdomestic edar-nàiseantadestinations, agusand 'scan urrainnhandle dhalarge riaircraft itealainand mòranight a dhèiligeadh is plèanaichean a dhol sìos tron oidhchelandings. BithThere tursan-adhairare eadar-nàiseantainternational annflights gachdaily lathato guand agus bhofrom [[Miami]], [[EabhraigNew Nuadh (baile)|Eabhraig NuadhYork]], [[Meagsago (baile)|BaileMexico MeagsagoCity]], [[Caracas]], [[Quito]], [[Panama (baile)|Baile PanamaCity]], [[Porlamar]], [[Aruba]] agusand iomadhother bailteanimportant cudromach eilecities. Chan eil am [[Port-Adhair Olaya Herrera Airport]] (EOH) a'serves frithealadhmainly achregional tursan-adhair roinneilflights, triallaiche agus plèanaichean beaga,commuter annsand a'light chummantasaircraft.
 
===Land Còmhdhail Fhearrainn transportation===
 
[[File:Metro de Medellin-Interior vagonHPIM0499.JPG|thumb|left|TreànaicheanMedellín´s Metro an am Medellín]]
 
ThoirThe siostamcity's còmhdhailpublic poblachtransport a'system bhaileincludes a-staighdiesel busaichean dieselbuses, tacsaidheantaxis, agusand treànaicheanan cathaireilurban ristrain anreferred as canarthe [[Metro de Medellín]]. Ceangailidh amThe Metro Medellínconnects fhèinthe gucities of Medellín, [[Itagüí]], [[Envigado]] agusand [[Bello, Antioquia|Bello]]. Thèid loighneLine A bhogoes from Itagüí guto Niquía, aguswhile loighneLine B bhogoes from San Antonio guto San Javier. A bharrachd airIn sinaddition, frithealaidh LoighneLine K agusand LoighneLine J, an air chàballcable car, air alocally bheilknown amas [[Metrocable]], serve gua ruigedepressed sgìreand cruaidhgeographically taobhdifficult chruinne-eòlais agus an eaconomaidharea. Toisichidh loighneLine K aigbegins stèisean metroat Acevedo aigStation loighneon Metro Line A, suasand air a'continues bheinnuphill, guending ruigeat Santo Domingo Savio. Toisichidh loighneLine J aigbegins stèisean metroat San Javier Station aig loighneon Metro Line B, suasand aircontinues a'uphill bheinn gu ruigeto La Aurora. ThaA planaicheannew annMetrocable airson loighne ùr a' Mhetrocableline (LoighneLine S) ais thoisicheasplanned anto anopen in 2009, agusand ceangailidhwill sinconnect Santo Domingo Savio guwith El Tambo ann am Pàircin Arví faisgPark airnear [[Guarne]]. 'S e Medellín anis aonthe bhaileonly anColombian amcity Coloimbianwith farsuch a bheil siostam chòmhdhail natransport leithidsystem.
 
Despite the variety of options, traffic in Medellín has become chaotic, as the number of vehicles has exceeded highway capacity; furthermore, pollution produced by diesel buses has become a major issue, notably in the center of the city and the southern district of El Poblado. The city has no space for the construction of new highways.
A dh'aindeoin sin, tha an trafaig ann am Medellín air fhàs gu math làidir, leis cho pailt a tha na carbadan an coimeas ris na sràidean; A bharrachd air sin, 's e dragh mòr a tha'nn an pollution ga dhèanamh leis na busaichean diesel, gu h-àraidh ann am meadhan a' bhaile agus mu dheas ann an El Poblado. Chan eil àite sam bith anns a' bhaile airson rathadan mòr a thogail.
 
Ann anIn 2006, thoisichconstruction anbegan obairon airMetroplus, a' Mhetroplus,bus seirbheisservice bhuswith lea rathaddedicated aige fhèinroad, dìreachmuch marlike anBogotá's [[TransMilenio]] ann am [[Bogotá]]. LeThis sin,will bidhallow anfaster seirbheistransit nasfor luaithethe dheservice's busaicheanbuses naand ruithMetro dha na stèiseanan metrostations. FosglaidhMetroplus amwill Metroplusbe anninaugurated anin 2009, isand eit a'will fritheadhcover mhòr-chuidmost a'of bhailethe city. 'SThe first leg ewill anbe the ''Troncal Medellín'', a'which chiadgoes phàirtfrom dha,the bhoUniversidad Oilthighde Medellín annin anthe àidewest anto iarAranjuez guin ruigethe Aranjuez,northeast mupart iar-thuathof a'the bhailecity. LughdaidhidhMetroplus amwill Metroplushelp anlessen drochthe thrafaig aguscity's pollution annsand a' bhailetraffic, oiras thèidmany mòranold seannbuses bhusaicheanwill abe churtaken àsout of service, iswhile nathe busaicheannew ùrabuses a'will cleachdadhwork with [[natural gas]] mar [[connadh|chonnadh]].
 
==Demography==
== Sluagh a' Bhaile ==
 
{|class="toccolours" align="right" style="width:210px; float:center; clear:right; margin:1em 0 2em 2em; line-height:140%;font-size:90%"
! colspan=3 style="background:#6688AA"|<font color="white">FàsGrowing anof t-Sluaighthe annpopulation amof<br />Medellín eadarbetween 1905-2005
|-
! style="background:#F0F0F0"|Cùnntas sluaighYears<br />annwith ancensus!!style="background:#F0F0F0"|SluaghTotal<br />Iomlanpopulation!!style="background:#F0F0F0"| % Fàs Bun growing<br>year />Bhliadhnabase 1905
|-
| align=left|1905*||align=right|59,815||align=center| 100%
!colspan=3|[[File:Poblacion Medellin.png|240px|border]]
|-
! colspan=3 style="background:#F0F0F0"|*<small>EachdraidhHistoria nade h-Antioquia<ref>Suramericana de Seguros (1988), ''Historia de Antioquia''. Editorial Presencia Ltda.(Edición especial no tiene ISBN) Medellín. pp. 299.</ref></small> - **<small>Cùnntasan sluaigh aCensos rinndel DANE</small>
|}
 
FuirichidhThe Aburrá Valley contains 58% sluaghof a'the Cheàrnapopulation of the [[Department of Antioquia]] anns a' Ghleann Aburrá, leand 67% sluagh a'of Ghlinnethe Aburrá a'Valley fuireachpopulation annlives amin Medellínthe fhèincity of Medellín. TaobhOf sluaghthe a'inhabitants bhaileof MhedellínMedellín, rugadh 61.3% annswere born in a'the bhailecity, 38% annin another àiteachanparts eileof annColombia an Coloimbia agusand 0,3% thallin thairisanother country.<ref name="DANE">[http://www.dane.gov.co/files/censo2005/perfiles/perfiles.swf DANE]: Cùnntas-sluaighthe 2005, Roinncensus of the National Department Nàiseantaof StaitistearachdStatistics naof ColoimbiaColombia.</ref>
 
A-rèirAccording Roinnto Nàiseantathe Riaghlach[[National naAdministrative Staitistearachd,Department bhaof sluagh dhe 2Statistics]],223,078 daoine aig Medellín annhad, anby 2005, isa lepopulation sinof bha2,223,078 einhabitants, anmaking dàrnait bhailethe asecond bulargest mhothacity ann anin ColoimbiaColombia. The metropolitan area of Medellín in 2005 included 3,312,165 inhabitants. BhaThere are 5820 daoinepeople airsonper gachsquare ciolomeatairkilometer ceàrnagachin annsthe a' bhailecity. BhaThere were 130,031 daoinepeople nanliving tàmhin annthe amcity bailtean beaga co-cheangailte ris a' bhaile-mòrtownships; 'Se fireannaich a bh'ann 46.7% agusof boireannaichthe apopulation bh'annare male and 53.3% anare t-sluaighfemale. ThaIlliteracy ìre neo-litireachd dheis 9.8% annsin napersons daoineolder nas aosda nathan 5 bliadhnayears a dh'aoisold. Tha cumhachd dealain aig 98.8% naof taigheanthe annhouseholds amin Medellín, fìorhave uisge aigelectricity, 97.3%, agushave drinking thawater, fònand aig91% anhave taigh aiga 91%land-line dhuibhphone.<ref name="DANE"/>
 
===Birth Breithean agus Bàsanand death===
A-rèirAccording a'to chunntais-sluaighthe 2005 DANE 2005census, chaidhin that year Medellín registered 33,307 breitheanbirths,<ref>[http://www.dane.gov.co/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&sectionid=16&id=36&Itemid=148 DANE]: ToradhResults breitheanof agusbirths Bàsanand dead.</ref> aslightly chlàradhfewer annsthan a' bhliadhna sin ann am Medellín, beagan nas lugha na ann anin 2004 (33,615). ChaidhIn 10,8282005 bàsanthe anumber chlàradhof anndeaths anwas 200510,828, agusin 2004 11,512 ann an 2004.
 
=== Buidhne Chinnidheach Ethnicities===
The [[ethnographic]] makeup of the city is:
Seo [[Co-mhisgeachd Chinnsidheach]] a' bhaile:
 
* [[Daoine GealaWhite]]: SpàinnteachSpanish, IùdhachJewish, ÀrabachArabic, Eòrpachother eileEuropean: 70%
* [[Mestizo]]: MeasgachadhMix dheof Daoine SpàinnteachSpanish, ÀfraganachAfrican, agus Daoineand TùsailIndigenous: 20%
* [[Afro-ColoimbianachColombian]]: 6.5%
* [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Daoine Tùsail AimearaganachIndigenous]]: 0.1%
 
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Medellín received many immigrants from Spain, and some forced immigration from West Africa. Most Indigenous peoples died from the introduction of European diseases, and many of those who survived intermarried with early Spanish settlers, who were mostly men; later, Spanish women also began to immigrate. During the 19th century, immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Jordan, Germany, and Portugal. Many people from Medellín are referred to as [[Paisa Region|Paisas]], people of mainly Spanish ancestry, mixed with African and Indigenous blood. There is a small Afro-Colombian and Zambo-Colombian (people of Indigenous and African descent) population .
Fhuair Medellín iomadh in-imrich às An Spàinn rè na 17mh agus 18mh linntean, a bharrachd air beagan inimreachais gun taghadh à Àfraga an Iar. Chaochail a' mhòr-chuid nan Tùsanach fo bhuaidh tinneasan às an Roinn Eòrpa, agus dh'eadar-phòs iomadh nam feadhainn a mhaireadh beò leis na prìomh In-Imrich Spàinnteach, fireannaich anns a' chumanntas; thoisich inimreachas nam boireannach Spàinnteach air dheireadh. Thigeadh in-imrich à Lebanon, à Iòrdan, às a' Ghearmailt, agus à Portagail rè an 19mh linne. 'S e [[Paisa Region|Paisas]] air a bheil iomadh dhaoine à Medellín, le freumhan Spàinnteach anns a' chumanntas, gam measgachadh le fuil Àfraganach agus Tùsanach. Tha coimhearsnachd bheag Afro-Coloimbianach and Zambo-Coloimbianach ann (daoine le freumhan Tùsanach agus Àfraganach).
 
The [[Chocó Department]] is just west of Antioquia, and is home to many Afro-Colombian and Zambo-Colombian migrants to Medellín and its vicinity. Migration from the Colombian Caribbean coast has been important, especially that of young people who come to study in Medellín universities and remain to work in the city. The main foreign immigration is of [[Ecuador]]ians in informal trade.
Tha [[Ceàrn an Chocó]] dìreach air àird an iar na h-Antioquia, tìr-àraich iomadh in-imrich Afro-Coloimbianach and Zambo-Coloimbianach a Mhedellín agus an sgìre aige. Tha inimreachas às a' Chòsta Chairib Cholombianach air a bhith fa-leth cudromach, gu h-àraidh na daoine òga a thig gus ionnsachadh aig na h-oilthigh ann am Medellín agus fuirichidh iad is iad ag obair anns a' bhaile. 'S ann an [[Ecuador]] a thig a' mhòrchuid dhe na in-imrich bho thall thairis is iad an sàs ann am malairt neo-fhoirmeil.
 
== Cultar Culture==
[[File:Desfile de Silleteros2007-(30)Medellin.JPG|thumb|right|A traditional ''silleta'' traidiseantain aigMedellín's Fèisannual BliadhnailFlower nan Dìthein ann am MedellínFestival.]]
 
'SThe einhabitants of Medellín are often called ''Antioqueños'' (AntioquianaichAntioquians) an t-ainm gu tric a tha air daoine a' Mhedellín bho ainmafter antheir stàitestate, anrather aghaighthan ''Medellinenses'' (MedellinianaichMedellinians) bhoafter ainmtheir a' bhailecity. 'SThey are also often eknown as ''[[Paisa Region|Paisas]]'', an t-ainm eile a th'orra,name iswhich cuidsome agsuggest ràdhcomes gufrom bheilthe freumhcoffee angrowers. ainmThe a'term tighinn bho na daoine a dh'fhàsadh'Paisa'' [[cofaidh]],comes marfrom amthe facal Spànnteachword ''paisano'' (fearfellow mo dhùthchacountryman). 'S'Paisas'' emake fearup dheone naof còigthe cultarfive roinneildifferent annregional ancultures Coloimbiawithin a th'ann an Cultar PaisasColombia. Tha an CultarThe [[Paisa garegion]] sgaoileadhincludes airthe feadhstates na ceàranof [[Caldas]], [[Risaralda]], [[Quindi­o]] aand bharrachdsome airtowns corra bhaile ann anof [[GleannValle del Cauca]] agusand [[CeàrnDepartment of Tolima|Tolima]].
 
Ged e an cultarAlthough Paisa aig a bheil làmh anculture iuchairis anndominant amin Medellí­n (the "A'Paisa Phrìomh-Bhaile PaisaCapital"), thathe amcity baileis a'becoming fàs nasmore cosmopolitan, agusnow a-nisoffering thatharmusic a'from tabhannother ceòlregions ceàrnanof eile bho ceàrnan eile ann an Coloimbia am mar amColombia ([[Vallenato]] agusand [[CeàrnDepartment anof Chocó|Chocó]]), leand iomadha variety of bhiadhlannrestaurants including [[China|SìneachChinese]], [[CùbaCuba]]nchn, agusand [[an ArgantainArgentina|ArgantaineachArgentinian]] nam measg.
 
The Paisa culture has a Spanish background, and is traditionally Catholic, entrepreneurial, hard-working, and famously hospitable. Paisas are said to speak softly and quickly, to smile easily, and to love [[Bullfighting|bullfights]], [[rodeo]], music, poetry, [[soccer]], bargaining in the markets, and parties. They are proud of their city. The Medellí­n weekend nightlife, in discos, pubs, parks, and certain dedicated streets, is traditionally called ''rumba''.<ref name="MattBrown">{{cite web|last=Brown|first=Matthew|url=http://albeiror24.wordpress.com/2008/03/11/colombia-an-emerging-travel-destination/|title=Colombia: An Emerging Travel Destination|accessdate=2008-05-04}}</ref>
Tha tùs Spàinnteach aig a' chultar Paisa, agus tha traidiseanan Caitligeach, gnìomhachasail, dìorrsach, agus hospitable aige. Thathar ag ràdh gum bruidhinn na Paisas gu ciùin luath, le gàire, agus gu bheil iad dèidheil air an [[tairbheadaireachd]], air an [[rodeo]], air [[ceòl|a' ceòl]], air a' bhàrdachd, air [[ball-coise|a' bhall-coise]], agus na ho-ro-gheallaidhean. Tha iad uabhasach moiteil às a' bhaile aca. 'S e "rumba" ris an canar beatha na clubaichean, na taighean-sheine, na ceàrnagan agus na sràidean gach deireadh sheachdain.
 
===Festivals and events===
=== Fèisean agus Tachartasan ===
 
'S e ''La Feria de las Flores'' (the [[FèisFestival naof Dìtheinthe Flowers]]) anis the most important [[fèis|fhèisfestival]] as cudromaiche ann anin Antioquia. Gheibh eIt àitetakes annplace amin Medellí­n aigin toiseachearly anAugust Lùnasdailand agushas thabeen ecelebrated airevery ayear bhith a' cumail gach bliadhna bhosince 1957. ThaThe taisbeanaidheanfestival dheincludes chàraichean[[parade]]s seannof fhasantaantique cars, of ''silleteros'' (daoineflower a' toirt dìtheincarriers), agusand of [[eachcavalcade|eichhorses]] ann mar phàirt na fèise.
 
A-measgOther nafestivals fèiseanare eilethe thaInternational fèis[[Poetry]] [http://www.festivaldepoesiademedellin.org/festival] Eadar-nàiseanta na [[Bàrdachd]Festival] (An t-IucharJune) (awhich fhuairreceived anthe 2006 [[Right Livelihood Award]] ) ann an 2006, Taisbeanadhthe Parade a'of MhiotaisMyths agusand an FhionnsgeulLegends (An DùbhlachdDecember) agusand ColombiaModa (tachartasa gnìomhachasfashion anindustry Fhasainevent).
 
[[File:Librarymed1.png|thumb|right|The Library of EPM, which is next to the Park of Lights.]]
[[File:Biblioteca Leon de Greiff-Bloque-Medellin.JPG|thumb|left|Leabharlann Leòn de Greiff.]]
 
=== Spòrs Sports===
 
Medellí­n'Ss ebest-known naand sgiobaidheanmost ball-coisepopular sports clubs are the [[Atlético Nacional]], [[Envigado F.C.]] agusand [[Deportivo Independiente Medellín]] afootball th'ann(soccer) na clubaichean spòrsail as ainmeile ann am Medellínteams. CluichidhThey iadplay uileat aig a' Phàircthe Atanasio Girardot Stadium. AMedellí­n bharrachdis airalso sin,known thafor Medellínits clùiteachtwo airsonmain answim dà sgioba snàimh ainmeil aigeteams, nathe Calamares Pilsen agusand nathe Huracanes. RugadhThree-time Tour de France lap winner [[Santiago Botero|Santiago Botero Echeverry]], amwas fearborn ain bhuannichthe lap an Tour de France trì tursan, anns a' bhailecity. 'S e cuideachd Medellí­n anis t-àitealso farthe anbirthplace doof rugadhprofessional angolfer cluicheadarand goilfPGA proifeiseantaTour player [[Camilo Villegas]], a tha an sàs ann an Turas PGA.
* [http://www.maratonmedellin.com|International Half-marathon of Medellín]
* [http://www.maratonvalledeaburra.com|Aburrá Valley Marathon]
 
===Nicknames of the city===
* [http://www.maratonmedellin.com| Leth-mharathon Eadar-nàiseanta Medellín]
* [http://www.maratonvalledeaburra.com Marathon a' Ghlinne Aburrá]
* [http://www.atlnacional.com.co Club Ball-Coise Atlético Nacional]
* [http://www.dim.com.co Club Ball-Coise Deportivo Independiente Medellín]
* [http://www.envigadofutbolclub.net Club Ball-Coise Envigado]
 
Known as the "industrial capital of Colombia", Medellí­n is also called ''Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera'' (City of Everlasting Spring), ''Capital de la Montaña'' (Mountain Capital), ''Ciudad de las Flores'' (City of Flowers), ''"Capital de las Orquí­deas"'' (Orchid Capital), ''La Bella Villa'' (the Beautiful Town), ''Tacita de Plata'' (Little Silver Cup), and ''Medallo'' (a nickname).
=== Far-ainmean a' bhaile ===
 
==Sister cities==
Aithnichte mar "prìomh-bhaile gnìomhachasail ann an Coloimbia", tha Medellín cuideachd fo na h-ainmean ''Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera'' (Baile an fhoghair bith-bhuan), ''Capital de la Montaña'' (Prìomh-bhaile nam Beann), ''Ciudad de las Flores'' (Baile na Dìthein), ''"Capital de las Orquí­deas"'' (Baile nan Orchid), ''La Bella Villa'' (Am Baile Boidheach), ''Tacita de Plata'' (Cupan Beag an Airgid), and ''Medallo'' (bhon ainm Medellìn fhèin).
 
* {{flagicon|Spain}} [[Barcelona]], [[Spain]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLinkPl/0,4022,229724149_257217612_2,00.html|title= Acuerdos de colaboración según la web del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona|accessdate= April 21, 2008}}</ref>
== Bailtean Co-cheangailte ==
* {{flagicon|Spain}} [[Bilbao]], [[Spain]]
* {{flagicon|Colombia}} [[Bogotá|Bogotá D.C]], [[Colombia]]
* {{flagicon|Argentina}} [[Buenos Aires]], [[Argentina]]
* {{flagicon|Colombia}} [[Cali]], [[Colombia]]
* {{flagicon|USA}} [[Fort Lauderdale]], [[United States]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/Americas|title= Sister cities|publisher= Online directory: the Americas (the member directory for sister cities in the Americas|accessdate= April 2, 2008}}</ref>
* {{flagicon|Italy}} [[Milan]], [[Italy]]
* {{flagicon|India}} [[Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh|Hyderabad]], [[India]]
* {{flagicon|Bulgaria}} [[Varna]], [[Bulgaria]]
* {{flagicon|Mexico}} [[Monterrey]], [[Mexico]]
* {{flagicon|USA}} [[Miami]], [[United States of America]].
* {{flagicon|Uruguay}} [[Tacuarembó]], [[Uruguay]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.lanacion.com.ar/herramientas/printfriendly/printfriendly.asp?nota_id=580269|title = Hermandad entre ciudades|publisher = La Nación,|date = March 14, 2004}}</ref><ref>[http://www.radiogardel.com/html/tacuarembo2.html Gardel en Tacuarembó], Radio Gardel</ref>
 
==Gallery==
* [[Barcelona]], [[An Spàinn]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLinkPl/0,4022,229724149_257217612_2,00.html|title= Acuerdos de colaboración según la web del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona|accessdate= 21 Giblean, 2008}}</ref>
* [[Bilbao]], [[An Spàinn]]
* [[Bogotá|Bogotá D.C]], [[Coloimbia]]
* [[Buenos Aires]], [[An Argantain]]
* [[Cali]], [[Coloimbia]]
* [[Fort Lauderdale]], [[Stàitean Aonaichte]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/Americas|title= Sister cities|publisher= Online directory: the Americas (the member directory for sister cities in the Americas|accessdate= 2 Giblean, 2008}}</ref>
* [[Milan]], [[Eadailt]]
* [[Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh|Hyderabad]], [[Na h-Innseachan]]
* [[Bharna]], [[Bulgàiria]]
* [[Monterrey]], [[Meagsago]]
* [[Miami]], [[Stàitean Aonaichte]].
* [[Tacuarembó]], [[Uruguaidh]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.lanacion.com.ar/herramientas/printfriendly/printfriendly.asp?nota_id=580269|title = Hermandad entre ciudades|publisher = La Nación,|date = 14 Màirt, 2004}}</ref><ref>[http://www.radiogardel.com/html/tacuarembo2.html Gardel en Tacuarembó], Radio Gardel</ref>
 
== Gallaraidh ==
 
<center><gallery>
Image:Iglesia_de Nuestra_Iglesia_de_la_Candelaria-Mede.JPG| EaglaisCandelaria a' ChandelariaChurch
Image:Plazuela_San_Ignacio-Medellin-Colombia.JPG|Cèarnag San Ignacio Square
Image:Estacion_del_Ferrocarril -Medellin.JPG|SeannRestored stèiseanold trèanatrain air a leighiseadhstation
Image:UNAL-Bloque M5-Facultad de Minas-Medellin.JPG|DàmhFaculty mamof MèinneanMines
Image:La Raza- de Rodrigo Arenas BetancourtBetancur-Medellin.JPG|Càrn-cuimhne ''La Raza'' Monument leby [[Rodrigo Arenas]]
Image:Biblioteca España(1)-Medellin.JPG|LeabharlannBiblioteca naEspaña Spàinne(Spain Library)
Image:La Alpujarra-Medellin.JPG|La Alpujarra (Talla a' bhaile)
Image:Centro de Medellin- Colombia.JPG|MeadhanMedellín a' bhaile MedellínCenter
Image:Btca epm.JPG|Leabharlann EPM Library
Image:Biblioteca Publica Piloto-ArchivoFotografico.JPG|LeabharlannBiblioteca PoblachPública DearbhaidhPiloto (Pilot Public Library)
Image:Biblioteca Leon de Greiff-Exterior4-Medellin.JPG|Leabharlann LeónLeon de Greiff Library
Image:Cerro Nutibara-Navidad 2006-Medellin(1).JPG|SolasanChristmas nalights Nollaige air a' chnocat Cerro Nutibara
Image:Plaza Cisneros-BosqueColumnas-Medellin.JPG|CèarnagPlaza Cisneros
Image:Museoelcastillo1.jpg|Taigh-tasgaidhEl Castillo Museum
 
Image:Teatro Metropolitano de Medellín.JPG|Taigh-cluicheMetropolitan a' bhaileTheatre
Image:Christmas2004inMedellín.JPG|SolasanChristmas nalights Nollaigealong rithe taobh na h-aibhnerío Medellín
</gallery></center>
 
== Iomraidhean References==
<references/>
 
<!--This article uses the Cite.php citation mechanism. If you would like more information on how to add references to this article, please see http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cite/Cite.php -->
== Ceanglaichean a-mach ==
 
{{commonsreflist|Medellín2}}
 
==External links==
* [http://www.medellin.gov.co/ Làrach-lìn oifigeil a' bhaile, anns an Spàinntis]
 
* [http://www.metrodemedellin.org.co/ Am Metro ann am Medellín]
{{commons|Medellín}}
* [http://www.lovemedellin.com Cultar ann am Medellín]
* {{Wikitravel}}
* [http://www.themedellinmap.com/ Mapa a' bhaile]
* [http://www.medellin.gov.co/ The city's official government webpage in Spanish] {{es}}
* [http://www.rightlivelihood.org/recip/2006/festival.htm 2006 Right Livelihood Award winner Fèis eadar-nàiseanta Bàrdachd Mhedellín]
* [http://www.metrodemedellin.org.co Metro] {{es}}
* [http://www.lovemedellin.com Medellín Culture] {{en}}
* [http://www.medellintraveler.com/ The Transformation of Medellin] {{en}}
* [http://www.themedellinmap.com/ Map of Medellin] {{en}}
* [http://www.rightlivelihood.org/recip/2006/festival.htm 2006 Right Livelihood Award winner La Festival Internacional de Poesía de Medellín]
* [http://www.newsweek.com/id/69552 Colombia’s City On A Hill, Newsweek]
* [http://www.ffwdweekly.com/article/life-style/travel/paramilitaries-and-rebels-in-rehab-4005/ Paramilitaries and Rebels in Rehab] by Ashifa Kassam, ''Fast Forward Weekly'', June 25 2009
* [http://www.dailymotion.com/user/Yann333/video/xa59d9_le-metro-de-medellin-colombie_travel the metro of Medellin (video)]
 
 
[[Category:Antioquia]]
{{Department of Antioquia}}
[[Category:Bailtean]]
 
[[Category:Coloimbia]]
{{DEFAULTSORT:Medellin}}
[[Category:Municipalities of Antioquia]]
[[Category:Cities, towns and villages in the Antioquia Department]]
[[Category:Metropolitan Area of Medellín]]
[[Category:Settlements established in 1616]]
 
{{Link FA|es}}
 
[[bg:Меделин]]
[[bn:মেদেয়িন]]
[[bg:Меделин]]
[[ca:Medellín]]
[[cs:Medellín]]
[[de:Medellín]]
[[el:Μεντεγίν]]
[[enes:Medellín]]
[[eo:Medeĝino (Kolombio)]]
[[es:Medellín]]
[[eu:Medellín]]
[[fi:Medellín]]
[[fr:Medellín]]
[[gd:Medellín]]
[[gl:Medellín]]
[[heko:מדיין메데인]]
[[huio:Medellín]]
[[id:Medellin]]
[[ie:Medellín (Antioquia)]]
[[io:Medellín]]
[[is:Medellín]]
[[it:Medellín (Colombia)]]
[[jahe:メデリンמדיין]]
[[ko:메데인]]
[[lt:Medeljinas]]
[[lv:Medeljina]]
[[lt:Medeljinas]]
[[hu:Medellín]]
[[nah:Medellín, Antioquia]]
[[nl:Medellín (Colombia)]]
[[ja:メデリン]]
[[no:Medellín]]
[[oc:Medellín]]
[[pl:Medellín]]
[[pt:Medellín]]
[[qu:Medellín]]
[[ro:Medellín]]
[[qu:Medellín]]
[[ru:Медельин]]
[[simple:Medellín]]
[[sr:Медељин]]
[[fi:Medellín]]
[[sv:Medellín]]
[[tr:Medellin]]
17

deasachaidhean